5-Azacytidine can induce lethal mutagenesis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Article Details

Citation

Dapp MJ, Clouser CL, Patterson S, Mansky LM

5-Azacytidine can induce lethal mutagenesis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

J Virol. 2009 Nov;83(22):11950-8. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01406-09. Epub 2009 Sep 2.

PubMed ID
19726509 [ View in PubMed
]
Abstract

Ribonucleosides inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the antiviral mechanism for the ribonucleoside analog 5-azacytidine (5-AZC). We hypothesized that the anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-AZC was due to an increase in the HIV-1 mutation rate following its incorporation into viral RNA during transcription. However, we demonstrate that 5-AZC's primary antiviral activity can be attributed to its effect on the early phase of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, the antiviral activity was associated with an increase in the frequency of viral mutants, suggesting that 5-AZC's primary target is reverse transcription. Sequencing analysis showed an enrichment in G-to-C transversion mutations and further supports the idea that reverse transcription is an antiviral target of 5-AZC. These results indicate that 5-AZC is incorporated into viral DNA following reduction to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Incorporation into the viral DNA leads to an increase in mutant frequency that is consistent with lethal mutagenesis during reverse transcription as the primary antiviral mechanism of 5-AZC. Antiviral activity and increased mutation frequency were also associated with the late phase of HIV-1 replication; however, 5-AZC's effect on the late phase was less robust. These results reveal that the primary antiviral mechanism of 5-AZC can be attributed to its ability to increase the HIV-1 mutation frequency through viral-DNA incorporation during reverse transcription. Our observations indicate that 5-AZC can affect two steps in HIV-1 replication (i.e., transcription and reverse transcription) but that its primary antiviral activity is due to incorporation during reverse transcription.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drugs
Drug Targets
DrugTargetKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
AzacitidineDNANucleotideHumans
Yes
Other
Details
AzacitidineRNANucleotideHumans
Yes
Other
Details