Population pharmacokinetics and dosing regimen optimisation of lopinavir in Chinese adults infected with HIV.

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Niu WJ, Sun T, Liu L, Liu XQ, Zhang RF, Yin L, Wang JR, Jia XF, Lu HZ, Zhong MK, Jiao Z, Zhang LJ

Population pharmacokinetics and dosing regimen optimisation of lopinavir in Chinese adults infected with HIV.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 Apr;124(4):456-465. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13154. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

PubMed ID
30346663 [ View in PubMed

Lopinavir (LPV) is a protease inhibitor (PI) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Current studies on LPV are mainly focused on Caucasians, and none have investigated the population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of LPV in Chinese population. The present study aimed to develop a PPK model for oral LPV in Chinese adults who are HIV-infected. A total of 460 LPV concentrations from 174 Chinese patients who received LPV/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg orally every 12 hours (q12h) were analysed using the non-linear mixed-effects modelling approach. Simulations of the LPV concentration profile were performed with different dosing regimens. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination process described the data. The estimated apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) (% relative standard error [RSE]) for oral LPV were 5.9 L/h (3%) and 117 L (8%), respectively. Body-weight was identified as a covariate on CL/F. In patients who weighed between 45 and 115 kg and received the standard 400/100 mg q12h regimen, the probability of achieving target trough concentration (Ctrough ) of 1 mg/L was >98% for PI-naive patients and the probability of achieving target Ctrough of 4 mg/L was <80% for PI-pretreated patients. This is the first population pharmacokinetic study to characterise the PK of LPV in Chinese patients with HIV infection. There were no obvious ethnic differences in the PK of LPV between the Chinese population and Caucasian population. The simulations demonstrated that the standard dosing regimen of 400/100 mg q12h (LPV/r tablets) appears to be sufficient for PI-naive patients but suboptimal for PI-pretreated patients. Therefore, the regimen of 800/200 mg q12h was recommended for PI-pretreated patients. Further investigation of dosage recommendation could be helpful in optimising LPV therapy for HIV infections.

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