Lopinavir/ritonavir induces the hepatic activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 but inhibits the hepatic and intestinal activity of CYP3A as measured by a phenotyping drug cocktail in healthy volunteers.

Article Details

Citation

Yeh RF, Gaver VE, Patterson KB, Rezk NL, Baxter-Meheux F, Blake MJ, Eron JJ Jr, Klein CE, Rublein JC, Kashuba AD

Lopinavir/ritonavir induces the hepatic activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 but inhibits the hepatic and intestinal activity of CYP3A as measured by a phenotyping drug cocktail in healthy volunteers.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 May;42(1):52-60. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000219774.20174.64.

PubMed ID
16639344 [ View in PubMed
]
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) administration on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity was quantified using a phenotyping biomarker cocktail. Changes in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A, CYP1A2, N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT-2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were evaluated using warfarin (WARF) + vitamin K, omeprazole (OMP), intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) midazolam (MDZ), and caffeine (CAF). DESIGN: : Open-label, multiple-dose, pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Subjects (n = 14) simultaneously received PO WARF 10 mg, vitamin K 10 mg, OMP 40 mg, CAF 2 mg/kg, and IV MDZ 0.025 mg/kg on days (D) 1 and 14, and PO MDZ 5 mg on D2 and D15. LPV/r (400/100 mg twice daily) was administered on D4-17. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were quantified by S-WARF AUC0-inf and OMP/5-hydroxy OMP ratio, respectively. CYP1A2, NAT-2, and XO activities were quantified by urinary CAF metabolite ratios. Hepatic and intestinal + hepatic CYP3A activities were quantified by IV (CL) and PO (CL/F) MDZ clearance, respectively. RESULTS: After LPV/r therapy, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 activity increased by 29%, 100%, and 43% (P = 0.001, 0.046, and 0.001), respectively. No changes were seen in NAT-2 or XO activity. Hepatic and intestinal + hepatic CYP3A activity decreased by 77% (P < 0.001) and 92% (P = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: LPV/r therapy results in modest induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 and potent induction of CYP2C19 activity. Increasing doses of concomitant medications metabolized by these enzymes may be necessary. LPV/r inhibited intestinal CYP3A to a greater extent than hepatic CYP3A activity. Doses of concomitant CYP3A substrates should be reduced when combined with LPV/r, although intravenously administered compounds may require less of a relative dose reduction than orally administered compounds.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Enzymes
DrugEnzymeKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
LopinavirCytochrome P450 3A4ProteinHumans
Unknown
Substrate
Inhibitor
Details
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C19ProteinHumans
No
Inducer
Details
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C9ProteinHumans
Unknown
Inducer
Details
Drug Interactions
DrugsInteraction
Etravirine
Ritonavir
The serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Interactions
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