Coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir and phenytoin results in two-way drug interaction through cytochrome P-450 induction.

Article Details

Citation

Lim ML, Min SS, Eron JJ, Bertz RJ, Robinson M, Gaedigk A, Kashuba AD

Coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir and phenytoin results in two-way drug interaction through cytochrome P-450 induction.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug 15;36(5):1034-40.

PubMed ID
15247556 [ View in PubMed
]
Abstract

Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and substrate; it also may induce cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes. Phenytoin (PHT) is a CYP3A4 inducer and CYP2C9/CYP2C19 substrate. This study quantified the pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interaction between LPV/RTV and PHT. Open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, PK study in healthy volunteers. Subjects in arm A (n = 12) received LPV/RTV 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) (days 1-10), followed by LPV/RTV 400/100 mg BID + PHT 300 mg once daily (QD) (days 11-22). Arm B (n = 12) received PHT 300 mg QD (days 1-11), followed by PHT 300 mg QD + LPV/RTV 400/100 mg BID (days 12-23). Plasma samples were collected on day 11 and day 22; PK parameters were compared by geometric mean ratio (GMR, day 22:day 11). P values <0.05 were considered significant. Following PHT addition, LPV area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) decreased from 70.9 +/-37.0 to 49.6 +/- 25.1 microg.h/mL (GMR 0.67, P = 0.011) and C0h decreased from 6.0 +/- 3.2 to 3.6 +/- 2.3 microg/mL (GMR 0.54, P = 0.001). Following LPV/RTV addition, PHT AUC0-24h decreased from 191.0+/-89.2 to 147.8+/-104.5 microg.h/mL (GMR 0.69, P = 0.009) and C0h decreased from 7.0+/-4.0 to 5.3+/-4.1 microg/mL (GMR 0.66, P = 0.033). Concomitant LPV/RTV and PHT use results in a 2-way drug interaction. Phenytoin appears to increase LPV clearance via CYP3A4 induction, which is not offset by the presence of low-dose RTV. LPV/RTV may increase PHT clearance via CYP2C9 induction. Management should be individualized to each patient; dosage or medication adjustments may be necessary.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Enzymes
DrugEnzymeKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2C9ProteinHumans
Unknown
Inhibitor
Inducer
Details
Drug Interactions
DrugsInteraction
Lopinavir
Phenytoin
The serum concentration of Lopinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Lopinavir
Fosphenytoin
The serum concentration of Lopinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Lopinavir
Carbamazepine
The serum concentration of Lopinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
Ritonavir
Phenytoin
The serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Ritonavir
Fosphenytoin
The serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Tipranavir
Phenytoin
The serum concentration of Tipranavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Tipranavir
Fosphenytoin
The serum concentration of Tipranavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Voriconazole
Lopinavir
The serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
Interactions
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