The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

Article Details


Kunst F, Ogasawara N, Moszer I, Albertini AM, Alloni G, Azevedo V, Bertero MG, Bessieres P, Bolotin A, Borchert S, Borriss R, Boursier L, Brans A, Braun M, Brignell SC, Bron S, Brouillet S, Bruschi CV, Caldwell B, Capuano V, Carter NM, Choi SK, Cordani JJ, Connerton IF, Cummings NJ, Daniel RA, Denziot F, Devine KM, Dusterhoft A, Ehrlich SD, Emmerson PT, Entian KD, Errington J, Fabret C, Ferrari E, Foulger D, Fritz C, Fujita M, Fujita Y, Fuma S, Galizzi A, Galleron N, Ghim SY, Glaser P, Goffeau A, Golightly EJ, Grandi G, Guiseppi G, Guy BJ, Haga K, Haiech J, Harwood CR, Henaut A, Hilbert H, Holsappel S, Hosono S, Hullo MF, Itaya M, Jones L, Joris B, Karamata D, Kasahara Y, Klaerr-Blanchard M, Klein C, Kobayashi Y, Koetter P, Koningstein G, Krogh S, Kumano M, Kurita K, Lapidus A, Lardinois S, Lauber J, Lazarevic V, Lee SM, Levine A, Liu H, Masuda S, Mauel C, Medigue C, Medina N, Mellado RP, Mizuno M, Moestl D, Nakai S, Noback M, Noone D, O'Reilly M, Ogawa K, Ogiwara A, Oudega B, Park SH, Parro V, Pohl TM, Portelle D, Porwollik S, Prescott AM, Presecan E, Pujic P, Purnelle B, Rapoport G, Rey M, Reynolds S, Rieger M, Rivolta C, Rocha E, Roche B, Rose M, Sadaie Y, Sato T, Scanlan E, Schleich S, Schroeter R, Scoffone F, Sekiguchi J, Sekowska A, Seror SJ, Serror P, Shin BS, Soldo B, Sorokin A, Tacconi E, Takagi T, Takahashi H, Takemaru K, Takeuchi M, Tamakoshi A, Tanaka T, Terpstra P, Togoni A, Tosato V, Uchiyama S, Vandebol M, Vannier F, Vassarotti A, Viari A, Wambutt R, Wedler H, Weitzenegger T, Winters P, Wipat A, Yamamoto H, Yamane K, Yasumoto K, Yata K, Yoshida K, Yoshikawa HF, Zumstein E, Yoshikawa H, Danchin A

The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

Nature. 1997 Nov 20;390(6657):249-56.

PubMed ID
9384377 [ View in PubMed

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Penicillin-binding protein 3P42971Details
2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligaseP40871Details
Adenylate kinaseP16304Details
Hut operon positive regulatory proteinP10943Details
Maltose-6'-phosphate glucosidaseP54716Details
Thiamine-phosphate synthaseP39594Details
Phosphocarrier protein HPrP08877Details
Nitric oxide synthase oxygenaseO34453Details
Chorismate mutase AroHP19080Details
S-ribosylhomocysteine lyaseO34667Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP]P39126Details
Septum formation protein MafQ02169Details
Aminopyrimidine aminohydrolaseP25052Details
Thiazole tautomeraseP25053Details
Glycine oxidaseO31616Details
NH(3)-dependent NAD(+) synthetaseP08164Details
Glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferaseP27623Details
Pur operon repressorP37551Details
Ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinaseP14193Details
N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylaseO34450Details
Nicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferaseP54455Details
Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferaseP21340Details
Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1O35000Details
6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthaseP11998Details
GTPase ObgP20964Details
Xanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseP42085Details
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthaseP96618Details
Probable GTP-binding protein EngBP38424Details
Hydroxyethylthiazole kinaseP39593Details
Phosphate acetyltransferaseP39646Details
Sigma factor SigB regulation protein RsbQO07015Details
Spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein SpsAP39621Details
D-ribose pyranaseP36946Details
Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylaseP25971Details
Fatty-acid peroxygenaseO31440Details
Cytidine deaminaseP19079Details
Peptidoglycan-N-acetylmuramic acid deacetylase PdaAO34928Details
Protein IolSP46336Details
Putative mannose-6-phosphate isomerase YvyIP39841Details
Oxalate decarboxylase OxdCO34714Details
Glutaminase 1O31465Details
Uncharacterized N-acetyltransferase YvbKO32248Details
4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase sfpP39135Details
Endoribonuclease EndoAP96622Details
Manganese-dependent inorganic pyrophosphataseP37487Details
Putative monooxygenase MoxCO34974Details
Protein NrdIP50618Details
FMN-dependent NADPH-azoreductaseO07529Details
Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomeraseP50740Details
Fatty acid metabolism regulator proteinP94548Details
Guanine deaminaseO34598Details
General stress protein 69P80874Details
Ribonuclease ZP54548Details
Transcription antiterminator LicTP39805Details
Protoporphyrinogen oxidaseP32397Details
Biotin/lipoyl attachment proteinC0H419Details
Biotin biosynthesis cytochrome P450P53554Details
Bacilysin biosynthesis protein BacBP39639Details
Lipase EstAP37957Details
Thymidylate synthase 1P0CI79Details
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit BQ59192Details
DNA gyrase subunit AP05653Details