Structural organization of the human kininogen gene and a model for its evolution.

Article Details


Kitamura N, Kitagawa H, Fukushima D, Takagaki Y, Miyata T, Nakanishi S

Structural organization of the human kininogen gene and a model for its evolution.

J Biol Chem. 1985 Jul 15;260(14):8610-7.

PubMed ID
2989294 [ View in PubMed

The entire human kininogen gene has been isolated as a set of overlapping genomic DNA fragments, and the 11 exons encompassing approximately 27 kilobase pairs have been mapped by restriction enzyme analysis and nucleotide sequence determination. The nine 5'-terminal exons encode the 5'-untranslated region and the protein-coding region for the signal peptide and the heavy chain, which are common for high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) prekininogen mRNAs. Exon 10 consists of the common sequence for bradykinin and the immediately following unique sequence for HMW prekininogen mRNA. Exon 11 is then located following a 90-nucleotide sequence downstream from exon 10 and precisely specifies the sequence unique to LMW prekininogen mRNA. This, together with the hybridization analysis of total human cellular DNA, leads us to conclude that human HMW and LMW prekininogen mRNAs are produced from a single gene as a consequence of alternative RNA processing events. The structural analysis of the kininogen gene also shows that each of the nine 5'-terminal exons discretely specifies the nine protein domains observed in the amino-terminal portion of the kininogens. Furthermore, these nine genetic domains can be characterized by a thrice repeated pattern of three genetic segments, and two sets of these three domains, encompassing exons 3-5 and exons 6-8, are most closely related to each other. Therefore, we have proposed two successive duplication mechanisms as a model for the generation of the structure of the kininogen gene.

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