1H NMR structural characterization of a recombinant kringle 2 domain from human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Article Details


Byeon IJ, Kelley RF, Llinas M

1H NMR structural characterization of a recombinant kringle 2 domain from human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Biochemistry. 1989 Nov 28;28(24):9350-60.

PubMed ID
2558718 [ View in PubMed

The kringle 2 domain of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been characterized via 1H NMR spectroscopy at 300 and 620 MHz. The experiments were performed on the isolated domain obtained by expression of the 174-263 portion of t-PA in Escherichia coli [Cleary et al. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 1884-1891]. The spectrum of t-PA kringle 2 is characteristic of a globular structure and shows overall similarity to that of the plasminogen (PGN) kringle 4. Spectral comparison with human and bovine PGN kringle 4 identifies side-chain resonances from Leu46, which afford a fingerprint of kringle folding, and from most of the aromatic ring spin systems. Assignment of signals arising from the His13, His48a, and His64 side chains, which are unique to t-PA kringle 2, was assisted by the availability of a His64----Tyr mutant. Ligand-binding studies confirm that t-PA kringle 2 binds L-lysine with an association constant Ka approximately 11.9 mM-1. The data indicate that homologous or conserved residues relative to those that compose the lysine-binding sites of PGN kringles 1 and 4 are involved in the binding of L-lysine to t-PA kringle 2. These include Tyr36 and, within the kringle inner loop, Trp62, His64, Trp72, and Tyr74. Acid/base titration of aromatic singlets in the presence of L-lysine yields pKa* approximately 6.25 and approximately 4.41 for His13 and His64, respectively, and shows that the His48a imidazole group does not protonate down to pH* approximately 4.3. Thus, the His48a and His64 side chains are in solvent-shielded locations. As observed for the PGN kringles, the Trp62 indole group titrates with pKa* approximately 4.60, which indicates proximity of the side chain to a titratable carboxyl group, most likely that of Asp57 at the binding site. Several labile NH protons of t-PA kringle 2 exhibit retarded H-exchange kinetics, requiring more than a week in 2H2O for full deuteration in the presence of L-lysine at 37 degrees C. This reveals that kringle 2 is endowed with a compact, dynamically stable conformation. Proton Overhauser experiments in 1H2O, centered on well-resolved NH resonances between 9.8 and 12 ppm, identify signals arising from the His48a imidazole NH3 proton and the three Trp indole NH1 protons. A strong dipolar interaction was observed among the Trp25 indole NH1, the Tyr50 amide NH, and the His48a imidazole CH2 protons, which affords evidence for an aromatic cluster in t-PA kringle 2 similar to that found at the hydrophobic kernel of PGN kringles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Tissue-type plasminogen activatorP00750Details