Pharmacogenomic Effect/ADR for Codeine (DBSNPE005624)

Codeine (DB00318)
Interacting Gene/Enzyme
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene Name
UniProt ID
Defining Change(s)
CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureNot Available
Allele Name
Not Available
Effect Inferred
Non-functional CYP2D6
Poor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements
  1. Panserat S, Mura C, Gerard N, Vincent-Viry M, Galteau MM, Jacoz-Aigrain E, Krishnamoorthy R: An unequal cross-over event within the CYP2D gene cluster generates a chimeric CYP2D7/CYP2D6 gene which is associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Oct;40(4):361-7. [Article]
  2. Black JL 3rd, Walker DL, O'Kane DJ, Harmandayan M: Frequency of undetected CYP2D6 hybrid genes in clinical samples: impact on phenotype prediction. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Jan;40(1):111-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.111.040832. Epub 2011 Oct 17. [Article]
  3. Gaedigk A, Fuhr U, Johnson C, Berard LA, Bradford D, Leeder JS: CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid tandems: identification of novel CYP2D6 duplication arrangements and implications for phenotype prediction. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Jan;11(1):43-53. doi: 10.2217/pgs.09.133. [Article]
  4. Gaedigk A, Jaime LK, Bertino JS Jr, Berard A, Pratt VM, Bradfordand LD, Leeder JS: Identification of Novel CYP2D7-2D6 Hybrids: Non-Functional and Functional Variants. Front Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 4;1:121. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2010.00121. eCollection 2010. [Article]
  5. Daly AK, Fairbrother KS, Andreassen OA, London SJ, Idle JR, Steen VM: Characterization and PCR-based detection of two different hybrid CYP2D7P/CYP2D6 alleles associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Aug;6(4):319-28. [Article]
  6. Gaedigk A, Coetsee C: The CYP2D6 gene locus in South African Coloureds: unique allele distributions, novel alleles and gene arrangements. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 May;64(5):465-75. doi: 10.1007/s00228-007-0445-7. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [Article]
  7. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database [Link]