Apolipoprotein C-II


Apolipoprotein C-II
  • APC2
  • Apo-CII
  • Apolipoprotein C2
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013965|Apolipoprotein C-II
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
Not Available
GO Classification
lipase inhibitor activity / lipid binding / lipoprotein lipase activator activity / phospholipase activator activity / phospholipase binding / protein homodimerization activity
cholesterol efflux / cholesterol homeostasis / chylomicron remnant clearance / chylomicron remodeling / high-density lipoprotein particle clearance / lipid catabolic process / lipoprotein metabolic process / negative regulation of catalytic activity / negative regulation of cholesterol transport / negative regulation of lipid metabolic process / negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis / negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance / phospholipid efflux / phototransduction, visible light / positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process / positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity / positive regulation of phospholipase activity / positive regulation of phospholipid catabolic process / positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process / positive regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling / retinoid metabolic process / reverse cholesterol transport / small molecule metabolic process / triglyceride homeostasis / triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling / very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling
chylomicron / early endosome / extracellular exosome / extracellular region / extracellular space / intermediate-density lipoprotein particle / low-density lipoprotein particle / spherical high-density lipoprotein particle / very-low-density lipoprotein particle
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in plasma. Plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism as an activator of lipoprotein lipase. Both proapolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein C-II can activate lipoprotein lipase. In normolipidemic individuals, it is mainly distributed in the HDL, whereas in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, predominantly found in the VLDL and LDL.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013966|Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2)
Chromosome Location
Not Available
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDP02655
UniProtKB Entry NameAPOC2_HUMAN
General References
  1. Fojo SS, Law SW, Brewer HB Jr: The human preproapolipoprotein C-II gene. Complete nucleic acid sequence and genomic organization. FEBS Lett. 1987 Mar 9;213(1):221-6. [Article]
  2. Fojo SS, Law SW, Brewer HB Jr: Human apolipoprotein C-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preapolipoprotein C-II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct;81(20):6354-7. [Article]
  3. Sharpe CR, Sidoli A, Shelley CS, Lucero MA, Shoulders CC, Baralle FE: Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 May 11;12(9):3917-32. [Article]
  4. Das HK, Jackson CL, Miller DA, Leff T, Breslow JL: The human apolipoprotein C-II gene sequence contains a novel chromosome 19-specific minisatellite in its third intron. J Biol Chem. 1987 Apr 5;262(10):4787-93. [Article]
  5. Wei CF, Tsao YK, Robberson DL, Gotto AM Jr, Brown K, Chan L: The structure of the human apolipoprotein C-II gene. Electron microscopic analysis of RNA:DNA hybrids, complete nucleotide sequence, and identification of 5' homologous sequences among apolipoprotein genes. J Biol Chem. 1985 Dec 5;260(28):15211-21. [Article]
  6. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [Article]
  7. Myklebost O, Williamson B, Markham AF, Myklebost SR, Rogers J, Woods DE, Humphries SE: The isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human apolipoprotein CII. J Biol Chem. 1984 Apr 10;259(7):4401-4. [Article]
  8. Jackson CL, Bruns GA, Breslow JL: Isolation of cDNA and genomic clones for apolipoprotein C-II. Methods Enzymol. 1986;128:788-800. [Article]
  9. Hospattankar AV, Fairwell T, Ronan R, Brewer HB Jr: Amino acid sequence of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II from normal and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jan 10;259(1):318-22. [Article]
  10. Jackson RL, Baker HN, Gilliam EB, Gotto AM Jr: Primary structure of very low density apolipoprotein C-II of human plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 May;74(5):1942-5. [Article]
  11. Fojo SS, Taam L, Fairwell T, Ronan R, Bishop C, Meng MS, Hoeg JM, Sprecher DL, Brewer HB Jr: Human preproapolipoprotein C-II. Analysis of major plasma isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jul 25;261(21):9591-4. [Article]
  12. Chun EM, Park YJ, Kang HS, Cho HM, Jun DY, Kim YH: Expression of the apolipoprotein C-II gene during myelomonocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2001 Apr;69(4):645-50. [Article]
  13. Sparrow JT, Gotto AM Jr: Phospholipid binding studies with synthetic apolipoprotein fragments. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;348:187-211. [Article]
  14. Bengtsson-Olivecrona G, Sletten K: Primary structure of the bovine analogues to human apolipoproteins CII and CIII. Studies on isoforms and evidence for proteolytic processing. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Sep 11;192(2):515-21. [Article]
  15. Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS: A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Metabolism. 2012 Jul;61(7):906-21. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2011.12.002. Epub 2012 Feb 2. [Article]
  16. Halim A, Ruetschi U, Larson G, Nilsson J: LC-MS/MS characterization of O-glycosylation sites and glycan structures of human cerebrospinal fluid glycoproteins. J Proteome Res. 2013 Feb 1;12(2):573-84. doi: 10.1021/pr300963h. Epub 2013 Jan 11. [Article]
  17. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [Article]
  18. Lycksell PO, Ohman A, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G, Johansson LB, Wijmenga SS, Wernic D, Graslund A: Sequence specific 1H-NMR assignments and secondary structure of a carboxy-terminal functional fragment of apolipoprotein CII. Eur J Biochem. 1992 Apr 1;205(1):223-31. [Article]
  19. Ohman A, Lycksell PO, Graslund A: A refined three-dimensional solution structure of a carboxy terminal fragment of apolipoprotein CII. Eur Biophys J. 1993;22(5):351-7. [Article]
  20. Menzel HJ, Kane JP, Malloy MJ, Havel RJ: A variant primary structure of apolipoprotein C-II in individuals of African descent. J Clin Invest. 1986 Feb;77(2):595-601. [Article]
  21. Pullinger CR, Zysow BR, Hennessy LK, Frost PH, Malloy MJ, Kane JP: Molecular cloning and characteristics of a new apolipoprotein C-II mutant identified in three unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jan;2(1):69-74. [Article]
  22. Hegele RA, Connelly PW, Maguire GF, Huff MW, Leiter L, Wolfe BM, Evans AJ, Little JA: An apolipoprotein CII mutation, CIILys19----Thr' identified in patients with hyperlipidemia. Dis Markers. 1991 Mar-Apr;9(2):73-80. [Article]
  23. Zysow BR, Pullinger CR, Hennessy LK, Farese RV Jr, Ghassemzadeh M, Kane JP: The apolipoprotein C-II variant apoC-IILys19-->Thr is not associated with dyslipidemia in an affected kindred. Clin Genet. 1994 Jun;45(6):292-7. [Article]
  24. Inadera H, Hibino A, Kobayashi J, Kanzaki T, Shirai K, Yukawa S, Saito Y, Yoshida S: A missense mutation (Trp 26-->Arg) in exon 3 of the apolipoprotein CII gene in a patient with apolipoprotein CII deficiency (apo CII-Wakayama). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Jun 30;193(3):1174-83. [Article]
  25. Halushka MK, Fan JB, Bentley K, Hsie L, Shen N, Weder A, Cooper R, Lipshutz R, Chakravarti A: Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):239-47. [Article]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB09130Copperapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB11886Infigratinibapproved, investigationalnobinderDetails
DB00877Sirolimusapproved, investigationalnobinderDetails