Manganese cation

Identification

Summary

Manganese cation is a transition metal used for supplementation of manganese during Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN).

Brand Names
Concept Ob, Multitrace-4, Multitrace-5, Multrys, Tandem Plus
Generic Name
Manganese cation
DrugBank Accession Number
DB06757
Background

Manganese is a transition metal that was first described in the 19th and 20th centuries.2 It is environmentally abundant, being the fifth most abundant metal and the twelfth most abundant element overall on Earth.2,4 Manganese intake primarily occurs through the diet,6 as it is found at low levels in many food sources and water.6,3 In humans, manganese regulates several physiological processes by acting as a cofactor for proteins 2,3,4 making it an essential metal for normal development and physiological functions.2

Manganese can be found in over-the-counter nutritional supplements and vitamins.4 It is commonly used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy.10 Apart from its use in human health, has been used in the mining industry, welding, smelting, and the manufacture of batteries.2

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Structure
Weight
Average: 54.938
Monoisotopic: 54.938049636
Chemical Formula
Mn
Synonyms
  • MANGANESE CATION (2+)
  • MANGANESE CATION (MN2+)
  • MANGANESE DICATION
  • MANGANESE ION(2+)
  • MANGANESE, ION (MN2+)
  • MANGANESE(2+)
  • MANGANESE(II)
  • MANGANESE(II) ION
  • MANGANOUS CATION

Pharmacology

Indication

Intravenous manganese, alone or in combination with other trace elements, is indicated for total parenteral nutrition (TPN).10,11

Administration helps to maintain manganese serum levels and prevent the depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms.10

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Prevention ofManganese deficiency••••••••••••
Treatment ofManganese deficiency••••••••••••
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Providing manganese (Mn) during TPN helps prevent the development of deficiency symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, weight loss, dermatitis, and changes in hair growth and colour.10

Mechanism of action

Mn2+ is an essential cofactor and activator for many enzymes that regulate biological functions and processes, such as oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases.3 These enzymes include polysaccharide polymerase, liver arginase, cholinesterase, pyruvate carboxylase,10 and Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD).8 These enzymes regulate immune function, metabolism, growth potential, hemostasis, mitochondrial homeostasis and antioxidant function,2 and neuronal function.4,8

TargetActionsOrganism
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial
cofactor
Humans
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrial
cofactor
Humans
UTGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and MAP3K7-binding protein 1Not AvailableHumans
UArginase-1
cofactor
Humans
USuperoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial
cofactor
Humans
UGlutamine synthetaseNot AvailableHumans
UPhosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinases
cofactor
Humans
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit
cofactor
Humans
Absorption

When orally administered, manganese (Mn) is reported to be readily absorbed through the intestinal tract:2,3 about 3–5% of dietary Mn is absorbed as Mn2+ and Mn4+.9

Under conditions of minimal intake, 20 mcg Mn/day is retained following intravenous administration. Assays for manganese in whole blood result in concentrations ranging from six to 12 mcg/Mn/L.10

Volume of distribution

Mn can cross the blood-brain barrier.4,6 Manganese is widely distributed but concentrates in mitochondria-rich tissues such as the brain, kidney, pancreas, and liver.10

Protein binding

Manganese is reported to bind to a number of carriers, such as transmanganin, beta-globulin, and transferrin.9 It is also reported to bind to serum albumin but to a minimal extent.5

Metabolism

Mn2+ is oxidized to Mn3+ by liver and plasma ceruloplasmin.9

Route of elimination

Excretion of manganese occurs mainly through the bile, but in the event of an obstruction, ancillary excretion routes include pancreatic juice or return into the lumen of the duodenum, jejunum, or ileum. Urinary excretion of manganese is negligible.10

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

There are many reported LD50 values in animals. The LD50 in mice and rats exposed to manganese (Mn) via gavage ranged from 225 to 1,082 mg Mn/kg/day.12

While manganese is an essential metal for various biochemical processes, it is also associated with the potential to cause neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity.2 Manganese toxicity is rare, but it can arise from occupational, accidental, or iatrogenic exposures.2,3 Acute manganese toxicity was reported in adult patients following infusion of manganese more than 10,000-fold the recommended dosage and after the use of dialysis fluid contaminated with manganese. Signs and symptoms included skin flushing, acute pancreatitis, elevated whole blood manganese concentrations, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of brain accumulation of manganese. Chronic infusion and oral intake of manganese above the recommended dosage have resulted in neuropsychiatric symptoms and MRI evidence of brain accumulation of manganese.10 Manganese-induced neurotoxicity is associated with motor dysfunction syndrome or Parkinsonism.3,6,7

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Manganese chloride6YB4901Y907773-01-5GLFNIEUTAYBVOC-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Manganese chloride tetrahydrateQQE170PANO13446-34-9CNFDGXZLMLFIJV-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Manganese sulfateW00LYS4T2610034-96-5ISPYRSDWRDQNSW-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ManganeseInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-01-31Not applicableUS flag
Manganese SulfateInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-30Not applicableUS flag
Micro MnSolution0.5 mg / mLIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1992-12-312018-08-01Canada flag
Micro MnSolution0.1 mg / mLIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1992-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bio-plex Tab 0.95mgTablet.95 mg / tabOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1988-12-312001-07-31Canada flag
Chelated Manganese Tablets - 5mgTablet5 mgOralAlbion1996-09-062002-07-12Canada flag
Chelazome Manganese Cap 15mgCapsule15 mgOralTrophic Canada Ltd.1987-12-312008-08-28Canada flag
Hvp Chelated Manganese 30mgTablet30 mg / tabOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1999-09-162003-09-10Canada flag
ManganeseCapsule30 mgOralSeroyal International Inc.1993-12-312009-07-06Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsManganese cation (2 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsManganese cation (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaManganese cation (0.58 mg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic acid (0.025 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Naturally Ltd1999-02-012006-06-16Canada flag
A/o-26 - CapletManganese cation (2.5 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic acid (.4 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada flag
Acti-MN + B1 + C CapletManganese cation (30.0 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (100 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Addamel NManganese chloride tetrahydrate (0.027 mg/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (1 ug/1mL) + Cuprous chloride (0.13 mg/1mL) + Ferric chloride (0.11 mg/1mL) + Potassium Iodide (0.013 mg/1mL) + Sodium selenite (3.2 ug/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.095 mg/1mL) + Sodium molybdate dihydrate (1.9 ug/1mL) + Zinc chloride (0.65 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2013-05-072017-03-31US flag
ADDAMEL N 20 AMPULManganese chloride (990 mcg/10mL) + Chromic chloride (53.3 mcg/10mL) + Cupric Chloride (3.4 mg/10mL) + Ferric chloride (5.4 mg/10mL) + Potassium Iodide (166 mcg/10mL) + Sodium selenite (69 mcg/10mL) + Sodium fluoride (2.1 mg/10mL) + Sodium molybdate (48.5 mcg/10mL) + Zinc chloride (13.6 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFRESENİUS KABİ İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.2019-04-30Not applicableTurkey flag
ADDAVEN IV INFUZYON ICIN KONSANTRE SOLUSYONManganese chloride (198 mcg/10mL) + Chromic chloride (53.3 mcg/10mL) + Cupric Chloride (1.02 mg/10mL) + Ferric chloride (5.4 mg/10mL) + Potassium Iodide (166 mcg/10mL) + Sodium selenite (173 mcg/10mL) + Sodium fluoride (2.1 mg/10mL) + Sodium molybdate (48.5 mcg/10mL) + Zinc chloride (10.5 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFRESENİUS KABİ İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.2016-09-062022-11-10Turkey flag
CentratexManganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (106 mg/1) + Magnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (30 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (6 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (200 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (10 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs, LLC2009-06-14Not applicableUS flag
Concept OBManganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (210 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (800 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (42.5 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (42.5 mg/1) + Magnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (7 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (5 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (5 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralU.S. Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-01-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
monoatomic dication, divalent metal cation, manganese cation (CHEBI:29035) / a cation (MN+2)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
H6EP7W5457
CAS number
16397-91-4
InChI Key
WAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Mn/q+2
IUPAC Name
manganese(2+) ion
SMILES
[Mn++]

References

General References
  1. Crooks DR, Ghosh MC, Braun-Sommargren M, Rouault TA, Smith DR: Manganese targets m-aconitase and activates iron regulatory protein 2 in AF5 GABAergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Jun;85(8):1797-809. [Article]
  2. Evans GR, Masullo LN: Manganese Toxicity. . [Article]
  3. Li L, Yang X: The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 5;2018:7580707. doi: 10.1155/2018/7580707. eCollection 2018. [Article]
  4. Horning KJ, Caito SW, Tipps KG, Bowman AB, Aschner M: Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health. Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:71-108. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034419. Epub 2015 May 13. [Article]
  5. Scheuhammer AM, Cherian MG: Binding of manganese in human and rat plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jun 18;840(2):163-9. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(85)90115-1. [Article]
  6. Aschner M, Dorman DC: Manganese: pharmacokinetics and molecular mechanisms of brain uptake. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25(3):147-54. doi: 10.2165/00139709-200625030-00002. [Article]
  7. Kulshreshtha D, Ganguly J, Jog M: Manganese and Movement Disorders: A Review. J Mov Disord. 2021 May;14(2):93-102. doi: 10.14802/jmd.20123. Epub 2021 Apr 6. [Article]
  8. Chen P, Bornhorst J, Aschner M: Manganese metabolism in humans. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018 Mar 1;23:1655-1679. doi: 10.2741/4665. [Article]
  9. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Manganese Chloride Intravenous Injection (December 2023) [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: MULTRYS (trace elements injection 4*), for intravenous use (June 2021) [Link]
  12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Toxicological Profile for Manganese [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001333
KEGG Drug
D04854
KEGG Compound
C19610
PubChem Compound
27854
PubChem Substance
310264880
ChemSpider
25916
RxNav
1546272
ChEBI
29035
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2103742
PDBe Ligand
MN
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Manganese
PDB Entries
117e / 1a0d / 1a0o / 1a16 / 1a3w / 1a3x / 1a5v / 1a6q / 1a76 / 1a9x
show 4452 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentManganese Safety in Adults1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentManganese Safety in Pediatric Patients1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSubstance Abuse / Substance Dependence1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous5.33 mcg/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous drip
SolutionIntravenous5.33 mcg/ml
TabletOral.95 mg / tab
TabletOral5 mg
CapsuleOral15 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet
Capsule
CapsuleCutaneous; Oral
LiquidOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
CapsuleOral
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Capsule, coatedOral
CapsuleOral30 mg
TabletOral30 mg / tab
TabletOral15 mg / tab
TabletOral50 mg / tab
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
KitOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
SolutionIntravenous0.1 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous0.5 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Capsule, liquid filledOral
SolutionIntravenous0.053 mg/10ml
SolutionOral
TabletOral6 mg / tab
TabletOral4 mg / tab
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral
Injection, solution, concentrateParenteral
Solution, concentrateIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Tablet, chewableOral
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionParenteral
Powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral300.000 mg
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US11786548No2021-07-012041-07-01US flag

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1246Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 4-72
boiling point (°C)2061Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 4-72
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.16Chemaxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.09Chemaxon
Physiological Charge2Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count0Chemaxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings0Chemaxon
Bioavailability1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterNoChemaxon
Veber's RuleYesChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
Not Available

Targets

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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3A
Uniprot ID
P50213
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39591.365 Da
References
  1. Soundar S, O'hagan M, Fomulu KS, Colman RF: Identification of Mn2+-binding aspartates from alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 28;281(30):21073-81. Epub 2006 May 31. [Article]
  2. Bailey JM, Colman RF: Distances among coenzyme and metal sites of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase using resonance energy transfer. Biochemistry. 1987 Jul 28;26(15):4893-900. doi: 10.1021/bi00389a042. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3G
Uniprot ID
P51553
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
42793.97 Da
References
  1. Soundar S, O'hagan M, Fomulu KS, Colman RF: Identification of Mn2+-binding aspartates from alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 28;281(30):21073-81. Epub 2006 May 31. [Article]
  2. Bailey JM, Colman RF: Distances among coenzyme and metal sites of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase using resonance energy transfer. Biochemistry. 1987 Jul 28;26(15):4893-900. doi: 10.1021/bi00389a042. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
May be an important signaling intermediate between TGFB receptors and MAP3K7/TAK1. May play an important role in mammalian embryogenesis.
Gene Name
TAB1
Uniprot ID
Q15750
Uniprot Name
TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and MAP3K7-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
54643.655 Da
References
  1. Conner SH, Kular G, Peggie M, Shepherd S, Schuttelkopf AW, Cohen P, Van Aalten DM: TAK1-binding protein 1 is a pseudophosphatase. Biochem J. 2006 Nov 1;399(3):427-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ARG1
Uniprot ID
P05089
Uniprot Name
Arginase-1
Molecular Weight
34734.655 Da
References
  1. Zakharian TY, Di Costanzo L, Christianson DW: Synthesis of (2S)-2-amino-7,8-epoxyoctanoic acid and structure of its metal-bridging complex with human arginase I. Org Biomol Chem. 2008 Sep 21;6(18):3240-3. doi: 10.1039/b811797g. Epub 2008 Aug 6. [Article]
  2. Li L, Yang X: The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 5;2018:7580707. doi: 10.1155/2018/7580707. eCollection 2018. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function
Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD2
Uniprot ID
P04179
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
24721.955 Da
References
  1. Li L, Yang X: The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 5;2018:7580707. doi: 10.1155/2018/7580707. eCollection 2018. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). E...
Gene Name
GLUL
Uniprot ID
P15104
Uniprot Name
Glutamine synthetase
Molecular Weight
42064.15 Da
References
  1. Li L, Yang X: The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 5;2018:7580707. doi: 10.1155/2018/7580707. eCollection 2018. [Article]
  2. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Specific Function
Gtp binding

Components:
References
  1. Li L, Yang X: The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 5;2018:7580707. doi: 10.1155/2018/7580707. eCollection 2018. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
Protein phosphatase that associates with over 200 regulatory proteins to form highly specific holoenzymes which dephosphorylate hundreds of biological targets. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essent...
Gene Name
PPP1CC
Uniprot ID
P36873
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
36983.4 Da
References
  1. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Iron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron whe...
Gene Name
ACO1
Uniprot ID
P21399
Uniprot Name
Cytoplasmic aconitate hydratase
Molecular Weight
98398.14 Da
References
  1. Crooks DR, Ghosh MC, Braun-Sommargren M, Rouault TA, Smith DR: Manganese targets m-aconitase and activates iron regulatory protein 2 in AF5 GABAergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Jun;85(8):1797-809. [Article]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Scheuhammer AM, Cherian MG: Binding of manganese in human and rat plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jun 18;840(2):163-9. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(85)90115-1. [Article]
  2. Golub MS, Han B, Keen CL: Aluminum alters iron and manganese uptake and regulation of surface transferrin receptors in primary rat oligodendrocyte cultures. Brain Res. 1996 May 6;719(1-2):72-7. [Article]
  3. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Manganese Chloride Intravenous Injection (December 2023) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Scheuhammer AM, Cherian MG: Binding of manganese in human and rat plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jun 18;840(2):163-9. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(85)90115-1. [Article]
  2. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Horning KJ, Caito SW, Tipps KG, Bowman AB, Aschner M: Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health. Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:71-108. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034419. Epub 2015 May 13. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Broad-scope metal ion transporter with a preference for zinc uptake (PubMed:29621230). Also mediates cellular uptake of nontransferrin-bound iron.
Specific Function
Ferrous iron transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A14
Uniprot ID
Q15043
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP14
Molecular Weight
54211.785 Da
References
  1. Xin Y, Gao H, Wang J, Qiang Y, Imam MU, Li Y, Wang J, Zhang R, Zhang H, Yu Y, Wang H, Luo H, Shi C, Xu Y, Hojyo S, Fukada T, Min J, Wang F: Manganese transporter Slc39a14 deficiency revealed its key role in maintaining manganese homeostasis in mice. Cell Discov. 2017 Jul 18;3:17025. doi: 10.1038/celldisc.2017.25. eCollection 2017. [Article]
  2. Mercadante CJ, Prajapati M, Conboy HL, Dash ME, Herrera C, Pettiglio MA, Cintron-Rivera L, Salesky MA, Rao DB, Bartnikas TB: Manganese transporter Slc30a10 controls physiological manganese excretion and toxicity. J Clin Invest. 2019 Dec 2;129(12):5442-5461. doi: 10.1172/JCI129710. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Important in metal transport, in particular iron. Can also transport manganese, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, vanadium and lead. Involved in apical iron uptake into duodenal enterocytes. Involved in iro...
Gene Name
SLC11A2
Uniprot ID
P49281
Uniprot Name
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2
Molecular Weight
62265.195 Da
References
  1. Horning KJ, Caito SW, Tipps KG, Bowman AB, Aschner M: Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health. Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:71-108. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034419. Epub 2015 May 13. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Plays a pivotal role in manganese transport. Manganese is an essential cation for the function of several enzymes, including some crucially important for the metabolism of neurotransmitters and other neuronal metabolic pathways. However, elevated levels of manganese are cytotoxic and induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Acts as manganese efflux transporter and confers protection against manganese-induced cell death (PubMed:22341972, PubMed:22341971, PubMed:25319704, PubMed:27226609, PubMed:27307044). Also acts as zinc transporter involved in zinc homeostasis. Seems to mediate zinc transport into early endosomes and recycling endosomes to prevent zinc toxicity; the function may be regulated by heterodimerization with other zinc transporters of the SLC30A subfamily. The SLC30A3:SLC30A10 heterodimer is involved in zinc transport-dependent regulation of the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway in endosomes. May be involved in regulation of zinc-dependent senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (PubMed:22706290, PubMed:22427991, PubMed:26728129).
Specific Function
Manganese ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A10
Uniprot ID
Q6XR72
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 10
Molecular Weight
52683.46 Da
References
  1. Horning KJ, Caito SW, Tipps KG, Bowman AB, Aschner M: Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health. Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:71-108. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034419. Epub 2015 May 13. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Essential ion channel and serine/threonine-protein kinase. Divalent cation channel permeable to calcium and magnesium. Has a central role in magnesium ion homeostasis and in the regulation of anoxi...
Gene Name
TRPM7
Uniprot ID
Q96QT4
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7
Molecular Weight
212695.37 Da
References
  1. Avila DS, Puntel RL, Aschner M: Manganese in health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7. [Article]

Drug created at September 14, 2010 16:21 / Updated at May 26, 2024 01:51