Selenious acid

Identification

Summary

Selenious acid is an ingredient found in supplements, vitamins, parenteral nutrition, and dandruff shampoo.

Brand Names
Multitrace-5
Generic Name
Selenious acid
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11127
Background

Selenious acid is the acid form of sodium selenite, a form of selenium 8.

Selenium is an essential trace element and antioxidant. It is a cofactor metabolic enzyme regulation. It also plays an important role in maintaining the general health of tissue and muscle and has antioxidant properties. Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidase enzyme, which protects cell components from oxidative damage due to peroxides produced during cellular metabolism 13.

Selenium (Se) has been demonstrated to prevent cancer in numerous animal models when administered selenium at levels exceeding the nutritional requirements. One study showed efficacy in the prevention of malignancy while utilizing a selenium supplement in humans. The reports from such studies have heightened the interest in additional human selenium supplementation studies to validate the results in larger populations 15.

Interestingly, selenium is being studied as a potential therapy in the prevention or management of atherosclerosis 18.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 128.97
Monoisotopic: 129.916915758
Chemical Formula
H2O3Se
Synonyms
  • selenige Säure
  • Selenious acid
  • Selenous acid
External IDs
  • UN 3283
  • UN-3283

Pharmacology

Indication

Selenium injection is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Administration of selenious acid in TPN formulas helps to maintain plasma selenium levels and also to maintain endogenous stores to prevent deficiency 19.

Selenium compounds, such as selenium sulfide, are used topically in anti-dandruff shampoos and in cases of seborrhea 13.

For the purpose of brevity, selenite will the focus of discussion, and more information about selenium can be obtained at Selenium.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Selenium is a component glutathione peroxidase, which protects cells from oxidative damage caused by peroxidases produced during cellular metabolism 8.

Selenium is needed to maintain the circulatory system. It also keeps the heart muscle and skin tissue healthy. It may also help in the prevention of cancer due to its stimulation of antioxidant activity and protection of cell membranes 13, 3.

Selenious acid preserves vitamin E, which improves the cell's antioxidant defense, and plays an important role in the structure of teeth 8.

Prolonged TPN (total parenteral nutrition) support in humans has resulted in selenium deficiency symptoms which include muscle pain and tenderness. The symptoms have been reported to respond to supplementation of TPN solutions with selenium Selenium, 19.

Pediatric conditions, Keshan disease, and Kwashiorkor have been associated with low dietary intake of selenium. The conditions are endemic to geographical areas marked by low selenium content in the soil. Dietary supplementation with selenium salts has been reported to reduce the incidence of the conditions among affected children 19.

Mechanism of action

Sodium selenite likely has the same mechanism of action as Selenium.

The most important physiological role of sodium selenite is associated with its presence as an active component of many enzymes and proteins, in addition to its antioxidative role. Selenium has been shown to activate anticancer agents, prevent heart and vascular diseases, exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, and to stimulate the immune system 22.

Its anticancer properties may be explained by the oxidation of free sulfhydryl groups. Tumor cells express free sulfhydryl groups (–SH) on the surface of their cell membranes and contribute to uncontrolled cell division. Only those compounds that can oxidize these groups to disulfides (S–S) may inhibit this process. Some organic forms of selenium, including selenocysteine, methylseleninic acid, and Se-methylselenocysteine have been established to be antioxidants. However, their anticancer mechanism is still not well understood 22.

Selenious acid, during an in vitro study, was found to stimulate hemoglobin synthesis in three different malignant erythroleukemia cell lines (MEL) 8. It has also been shown to increase the release of interleukin 2 in a dose-dependent manner 6. Interleukin-2 is made by a type of T lymphocyte (white blood cell). It increases the growth and activity of other T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes and this contributes to the development of the immune system 6.

Absorption

The absorption of selenite following oral administration approximately 40-70% of an oral dose, based on studies done in humans 20.

Selenoprotein P, the plasma form of selenium, contains at least 40% of the total selenium in plasma 25. Deletion of the gene for selenoprotein P in mouse models alters the distribution of selenium in body tissues suggesting that selenoprotein P is necessary for selenium transport 4.

Volume of distribution

Following oral intake and absorption, selenium from sodium selenite is found in the highest concentrations in the liver and kidneys of humans and animals 20.

In one study, tissue samples taken at autopsy from 46 healthy individuals killed in accidents and from 75 corpses of victims of various diseases to analyze selenium levels and distribution 4. The per-weight-unit basis of selenium levels ng/gm in wet in tissues decreased in the following order: kidney (469) > liver > spleen > pancreas > heart > brain > lung > bone > skeletal muscle. The highest proportion of body selenium was found in skeletal muscles (27.5%) 4, 24. Significantly less selenium was measured in bones (16%) and blood (10%). In the tissues of cancer corpses, the selenium levels were lower than levels in the control group. The lowest selenium concentrations were measured in alcoholic livers 4.

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Absorbed selenium, from both inorganic sources such as selenite and organic sources including selenomethionine, is metabolized to hydrogen selenide, and subsequently incorporated into essential selenoproteins 20.

In vivo, selenium compounds are generally metabolized to reduced states. For example, quadrivalent selenium (Se+4) in selenite often undergoes reduction to Se−2, metabolized firstly to H2Se and, finally, being methylated to various excretory forms. Selenious acid to oxidize sulfurous acid: H2SeO3 + 2H2SO3 → Se0 + 2H2SO4 + H2O 10.

Se may also produce reactive oxygen species and, thereby, exert cancer-selective cytotoxicity. Selenodiglutathione (SDG) is a primary Se metabolite conjugated to two glutathione (GSH) moieties. Selenodiglutathione increases intracellular selenium accumulation and is significantly more toxic than selenous acid (H2SeO3). 2.

The liver is the central organ for selenium regulation and produces excretory selenium forms to regulate whole-body selenium 10.

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Route of elimination

Selenium is eliminated mainly in the urine. However, significant endogenous losses through the feces can also occur 23. The rate of excretion varies with the chemical form of selenium used in supplementation and the route of administration. Other minor routes of elimination are lungs and skin 19.

Analysis of 72-hour urine sampling from a study of 48 Norwegian women given a 200 μg supplement of selenium in the form of selenite indicated approximately 50% absorption of selenite 20.

Half-life

30 days in beagle dogs 8.

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The toxicity of selenium has been consistently well documented. However, some early studies reported that selenium may be a carcinogen. Nelson et al. (1943) showed that rats fed diets containing Se as seleniferous wheat developed hepatic tumors and low-grade carcinomas in 11 out 53 study animals 11.

Selenium at high doses (15-30 mcg/egg) has been reported to have significant adverse embryological effects on developing chickens. There currently no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Selenious acid injections should be used during pregnancy only when the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the growing fetus 20.

The presence of selenium in the placenta and the umbilical cord blood has been reported in humans 20.

Overdosage symptoms with selenious acid include:

Acute Brick red–color gastric mucosa, cerebral edema, coma, death, fulminating peripheral vascular collapse, garlic or sour breath odor, gastrointestinal disturbance, hemolysis, hypersalivation, internal vascular congestion, liver necrosis, muscle spasms, pulmonary edema, and restlessness 20.

Chronic Dental defects, dermatitis, garlic odor of breath and/or sweat, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, mental depression, metallic taste, nervousness, nausea, vomiting, weak nails 20.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAcrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir dipivoxilAdefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Selenious acid which could result in a higher serum level.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium seleniteHIW548RQ3W10102-18-8BVTBRVFYZUCAKH-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Sodium selenite pentahydrate0WV4L961ZV26970-82-1TUANAMBRHOLYTH-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Micro SeSolution40 mcg / mLIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1993-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
SeleniumInjection, solution65.4 ug/1mLIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-302021-03-31US flag
SelepenSolution40 mcg / mLIntravenousPartners Health Care, Inc.1997-01-162008-02-15Canada flag
Selepen Inj 40mcg/ml USPLiquid40 mcg / mLIntravenousLyphomed, Division Of Fujisawa Canada Inc.1984-12-311997-01-30Canada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Formula-SETablet30 mcg / tabOralGesar Ag1997-09-262001-07-02Canada flag
Selenium SupplementCapsule30 mcg / capOralFor Mor International Inc.2000-03-252004-08-11Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ADDAMEL INFUSION NSodium selenite pentahydrate (105 mcg) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (53.3 mcg) + Cupric chloride dihydrate (3.4 mg) + Ferric chloride hexahydrate (5.4 mg) + Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (990 mcg) + Potassium Iodide (166 mcg) + Sodium fluoride (2.1 mg) + Sodium molybdate dihydrate (48.5 mcg) + Zinc chloride (13.6 mg)Solution, concentrateIntravenousFRESENIUS KABI COLOMBIA S.A.S.2006-11-102009-05-08Colombia flag
AddnutrivSodium selenite (79 mcg / 10 mL) + Chromic chloride (10 mcg / 10 mL) + Cupric Chloride (380 mcg / 10 mL) + Ferric chloride (1100 mcg / 10 mL) + Manganese (55 mcg / 10 mL) + Potassium Iodide (130 mcg / 10 mL) + Sodium fluoride (950 mcg / 10 mL) + Sodium molybdate (19 mcg / 10 mL) + Zinc (5000 mcg / 10 mL)SolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2020-12-01Not applicableCanada flag
Alkadrenergy TabletsSodium selenite (37.5 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg) + Beta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Calcium (50 mg) + Choline (100 mg) + Chromic chloride (5 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (45 mcg) + Folic acid (0.2 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Iodine (0.1 mg) + Magnesium (50 mg) + Manganese (0.5 mg) + Molybdenum (3 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.25 mg) + Riboflavin (6.25 mg) + Thiamine (6.25 mg) + Zinc (9 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (15 unit)TabletOralMorter HealthsystemNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Avengers Vitamin and Mineral SupplementSodium selenite (25 mcg / tab) + Ascorbic acid (25 mg / tab) + Vitamin E (10 unit / tab) + Zinc (15 mg / tab)TabletOralFor Mor International Inc.2000-03-252002-06-25Canada flag
C. Vit-min FormulaSodium selenite (200 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (175 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline (30 mg) + Chromium (50 mcg) + Copper (5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (10 mg) + Folic acid (0.600 mg) + Inositol (30 mg) + Magnesium (80 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (50 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg) + Potassium (40 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Racemethionine (3 mg) + Riboflavin (50 mg) + Silicon (0.01 mg) + Thiamine (50 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Zinc (40 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (100 unit)TabletOralNutramed Laboratories Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Children's Chewable TabSodium selenite (2.6 mcg / tab) + Ascorbic acid (33.33 mg / tab) + Beta carotene (333.3 unit / tab) + Biotin (33 mcg / tab) + Chromic chloride (2.2 mcg / tab) + Cyanocobalamin (7.33 mcg / tab) + Folic acid (.1 mg / tab) + Magnesium (23.33 mg / tab) + Manganese sulfate (1.82 mg / tab) + Molybdenum (.7 mcg / tab) + Niacin (.33 mg / tab) + Nicotinamide (2.66 mg / tab) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg / tab) + Potassium (9.44 mg / tab) + Potassium Iodide (.016 mg / tab) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1.66 mg / tab) + Racemethionine (2.66 mg / tab) + Riboflavin (1 mg / tab) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.66 mg / tab) + Vitamin A palmitate (333.3 unit / tab) + Zinc (.95 mg / tab) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 unit / tab)TabletOralNf Formulas Inc.1988-12-312000-06-21Canada flag
DAILY-ONE 45 FILM TABLETSodium selenite (0.07 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Beta carotene (2000 IU) + Biotin (0.06 mg) + Calcium phosphate, tribasic (100 mg) + Calcium phosphate, tribasic (50 mg) + Choline bitartrate (3.9 mg) + Chromium nicotinate (0.13 mg) + Cupric sulfate (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (0.015 mg) + Egg phospholipids (23 mg) + Ferrous fumarate (18 mg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Inositol (3.9 mg) + Magnesium oxide (40 mg) + Manganese sulfate (3.5 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Pantothenic acid (20 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Potassium citrate (18 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12 mg) + Riboflavin (10.2 mg) + Sodium molybdate (0.05 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (9 mg) + Vitamin A acetate (8000 IU) + Vitamin D (400 IU) + Vitamin E (60 IU) + Zinc gluconate (15 mg)Tablet, film coatedFERROSAN SAĞLIK ÜRÜN VE HİZMETLERİ A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Formula F L WSodium selenite (25 mcg / tab) + Ascorbic acid (320 mg / tab) + Biotin (10 mcg / tab) + Calcium ascorbate (80 mg / tab) + Choline bitartrate (72.5 mg / tab) + Chromium (20 mcg / tab) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg / tab) + Fish liver oil (4000 unit / tab) + Folic acid (.04 mg / tab) + Inositol (4 mg / tab) + Magnesium (40 mg / tab) + Manganese (.5 mg / tab) + Niacin (5 mg / tab) + Nicotinamide (5 mg / tab) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg / tab) + Potassium (20 mg / tab) + Potassium (20 mg / tab) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (15 mg / tab) + Riboflavin (5 mg / tab) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg / tab) + Vitamin E (65 unit / tab) + Zinc (3 mg / tab)TabletOralCreative Nutrition Canada Corp.1984-12-311997-01-20Canada flag
Golf Vitamin and Mineral SupplementSodium selenite (2 mcg / mL) + Ascorbic acid (10 mg / mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg / mL) + Zinc (5 mg / mL)LiquidOralMuscle Marketing Usa Inc.2001-02-242008-06-27Canada flag
I-care Multivitamin and Multimineral TabletsSodium selenite (40 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg) + Beta carotene (5000 unit) + Cupric oxide (2 mg) + Zinc (40 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 unit)TabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.2002-05-302009-07-30Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Addamel NSodium selenite (3.2 ug/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (1 ug/1mL) + Cuprous chloride (0.13 mg/1mL) + Ferric chloride (0.11 mg/1mL) + Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (0.027 mg/1mL) + Potassium Iodide (0.013 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.095 mg/1mL) + Sodium molybdate dihydrate (1.9 ug/1mL) + Zinc chloride (0.65 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2013-05-072017-03-31US flag
ADDAMEL N 20 AMPULSodium selenite (69 mcg/10mL) + Chromic chloride (53.3 mcg/10mL) + Cupric Chloride (3.4 mg/10mL) + Ferric chloride (5.4 mg/10mL) + Manganese chloride (990 mcg/10mL) + Potassium Iodide (166 mcg/10mL) + Sodium fluoride (2.1 mg/10mL) + Sodium molybdate (48.5 mcg/10mL) + Zinc chloride (13.6 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFRESENİUS KABİ İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
ADDAVEN IV INFUZYON ICIN KONSANTRE SOLUSYONSodium selenite (173 mcg/10mL) + Chromic chloride (53.3 mcg/10mL) + Cupric Chloride (1.02 mg/10mL) + Ferric chloride (5.4 mg/10mL) + Manganese chloride (198 mcg/10mL) + Potassium Iodide (166 mcg/10mL) + Sodium fluoride (2.1 mg/10mL) + Sodium molybdate (48.5 mcg/10mL) + Zinc chloride (10.5 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFRESENİUS KABİ İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Multitrace-5Selenious acid (98 ug/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (51.3 ug/1mL) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (3.93 mg/1mL) + Manganese sulfate (1.54 mg/1mL) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (22 mg/1mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1993-12-17Not applicableUS flag
Multitrace-5Selenious acid (32.7 ug/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (20.5 ug/1mL) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1.57 mg/1mL) + Manganese sulfate (0.308 mg/1mL) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (4.39 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1994-02-17Not applicableUS flag
Multitrace-5Selenious acid (98 ug/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (51.3 ug/1mL) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (3.93 mg/1mL) + Manganese sulfate (1.54 mg/1mL) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (22 mg/1mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1993-09-14Not applicableUS flag
PeditraceSodium selenite (2 ug/1mL) + Cupric chloride dihydrate (20 ug/1mL) + Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (1 ug/1mL) + Potassium Iodide (1 ug/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (57 ug/1mL) + Zinc chloride (250 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2013-05-092016-08-31US flag
SeleniumSelenious acid (65.4 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-302021-03-31US flag
Tricare Prenatal 2-part Daily Prenatal Vitamin SystemSodium selenite (.0325 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg/1) + Biotin (.150 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (.060 mg/1) + Copper gluconate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.125 mg/1) + Doconexent (150 1/1) + Ferric pyrophosphate (4.5 mg/1) + Icosapent (37.5 1/1) + Levomefolic acid (1 mg/1) + Manganese citrate decahydrate (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (75 1/1) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (.85 mg/1) + Sodium molybdate (.0375 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.25 mg/1) + Zinc (7 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 [iU]/1)KitOralMedecor Pharma, Llc2016-05-10Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A12CE02 — Sodium selenite
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal selenites. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a selenite as its largest oxoanion.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Other mixed metal/non-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Non-metal selenites
Direct Parent
Non-metal selenites
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Inorganic oxide / Non-metal selenite
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
selenium oxoacid (CHEBI:26642) / an anion (SELENITE)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
F6A27P4Q4R
CAS number
7783-00-8
InChI Key
MCAHWIHFGHIESP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/H2O3Se/c1-4(2)3/h(H2,1,2,3)
IUPAC Name
selenous acid
SMILES
O[Se](O)=O

References

General References
  1. Burk RF, Hill KE: Regulation of Selenium Metabolism and Transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2015;35:109-34. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034250. Epub 2015 May 13. [Article]
  2. Tobe T, Ueda K, Aoki A, Okamoto Y, Kojima N, Jinno H: Selenium uptake through cystine transporter mediated by glutathione conjugation. J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42(1):85-91. doi: 10.2131/jts.42.85. [Article]
  3. Combs GF Jr, Noguchi T, Scott ML: Mechanisms of action of selenium and vitamin E in protection of biological membranes. Fed Proc. 1975 Oct;34(11):2090-5. [Article]
  4. Zachara BA, Pawluk H, Bloch-Boguslawska E, Sliwka KM, Korenkiewicz J, Skok Z, Ryc K: Tissue level, distribution, and total body selenium content in healthy and diseased humans in Poland. Arch Environ Health. 2001 Sep-Oct;56(5):461-6. doi: 10.1080/00039890109604483. [Article]
  5. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [Article]
  6. Zhuang T, Xu H, Hao S, Ren F, Chen X, Pan C, Huang K: Effects of selenium on proliferation, interleukin-2 production and selenoprotein mRNA expression of normal and dexamethasone-treated porcine splenocytes. Res Vet Sci. 2015 Feb;98:59-65. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.11.019. Epub 2014 Dec 4. [Article]
  7. Haratake M, Hongoh M, Ono M, Nakayama M: Thiol-dependent membrane transport of selenium through an integral protein of the red blood cell membrane. Inorg Chem. 2009 Aug 17;48(16):7805-11. doi: 10.1021/ic900988j. [Article]
  8. Selenious Acid PubChem [Link]
  9. Selenium (As selenious acid) [Link]
  10. Selenium overview [Link]
  11. EPA Label, Selenious Acid [Link]
  12. High-dose selenium for critically ill patients with systemic inflammation: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of selenious acid: A pilot study [Link]
  13. Selenium, URMC Rochester encyclopedia [Link]
  14. Absorption, distribution, and retention of inhaled selenious acid and selenium metal aerosols in Beagle dogs [Link]
  15. Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase [Link]
  16. Distribution of Selenium in Plasma of French Women: Relation to Age and Selenium Status [Link]
  17. Interaction between SNPs in selenoprotein P and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase determines prostate cancer risk [Link]
  18. Selenium in the prevention of atherosclerosis and its underlying mechanisms [Link]
  19. Selenium Injection [Link]
  20. Selenious acid as a source of selenium added for nutritional purposes to food supplements [Link]
  21. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study [Link]
  22. Application of Sodium Selenite in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers [Link]
  23. Selenious Acid Injection [Link]
  24. Selenium Overview [Link]
  25. Selenoprotein P [Link]
  26. FDA Approved Drug Products: Selenious Acid Injection for intravenous administration [Link]
  27. AIFA Product Information: Selesyn (sodium selenite pentahydrate) oral solution [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0011119
PubChem Compound
1091
PubChem Substance
347827908
ChemSpider
1060
RxNav
36344
ChEBI
26642
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2009089
Wikipedia
Selenous_acid
MSDS
Download (132 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentPeripartum Cardiomyopathy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Critically-ill Patients / Selenium Deficiency / Septic / Trace Element Deficiency1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedTreatmentArsenic Exposure / Arsenic Poisoning / Arsenic Toxicity / Arsenical Cancers / Arsenical Keratosis / Arsenical Melanosis / Arsenicosis1
3CompletedTreatmentLeft Ventricular Dysfunction1
3CompletedTreatmentSeptic Shock / Severe Sepsis1
3RecruitingPreventionChemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma / Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphedema / Neoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentSeptic Shock / Severe Sepsis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous drip
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Tablet, film coated
TabletOral30 mcg / tab
LiquidOral
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous40 mcg / mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral
Injection, solution, concentrateParenteral
TabletOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 Mikrogramm/2ml
SolutionOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 Mikrogramm/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous65.4 ug/1mL
CapsuleOral30 mcg / cap
LiquidIntravenous40 mcg / mL
Injection, solutionParenteral
KitOral
Tablet, chewableOral
PowderOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)70MSDS
boiling point (°C)684.9MSDS
water solubilitysoluble MSDS
pKa2.46MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity19.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.84 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Activator
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name
GPX1
Uniprot ID
P07203
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Molecular Weight
22087.94 Da
References
  1. High-dose selenium for critically ill patients with systemic inflammation: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of selenious acid: A pilot study [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enha...
Gene Name
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID
Q16881
Uniprot Name
Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Transporter
General Function
Selenium binding
Specific Function
Might be responsible for some of the extracellular antioxidant defense properties of selenium or might be involved in the transport of selenium. May supply selenium to tissues such as brain and tes...
Gene Name
SEPP1
Uniprot ID
P49908
Uniprot Name
Selenoprotein P
Molecular Weight
43173.37 Da
References
  1. Interaction between SNPs in selenoprotein P and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase determines prostate cancer risk [Link]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on July 24, 2021 14:58