Identification

Generic Name
Tea tree oil
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11218
Background

Tea tree oil is an essential oil derived mainly from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia via steam distillation of the of the leaves and terminal branches 2. It may be referred to as Melaleuca alternifolia oil. It has been a popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products due to its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant properties 1. The dermatological use of tea tree oil has been investigated by various studies, where several studies have suggested the uses of this oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, and chronic gingivitis 1. Terpene hydrocarbons and related alcohols constitute tea tree oil, with Terpinen-4-ol being the major antimicrobial component 2.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Experimental, Nutraceutical
Synonyms
  • Australian tea tree oil
  • Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) leaf oil
  • Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) leaf water
  • Melaleuca alternifolia leaf oil
  • Melaleuca alternifolia oil
  • Melaleuca oil
  • Narrow-leaved tea-tree leaf oil
  • Narrow-leaved ti-tree leaf oil
  • Narrowleaf paperbark leaf oil
  • Snow-in-summer leaf oil
  • Tea tree oil
  • Tea tree oil australia
  • Tea tree volatile oil
  • Ti tree oil
External IDs
  • FEMA NO. 3902

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for topical use to help protect against infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. No FDA-approved therapeutic indications.

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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Tea tree oil exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activities 2. It mostly mediates bactericidal actions at concentrations of 1.0% or less in most bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and causes bacteriostatic effects at lower concentrations 2. Organisms such as commensal skin staphylococci and micrococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosaemphasized text were susceptible to tea tree oil concentrations of 2% 2. It is proposed that water-soluble components of tea tree oil are capable in inducing anti-inflammatory actions; terpinen-4-ol attenuates the vasodilation and plasma extravasation associated with histamine-induced inflammation in humans 1.

Mechanism of action

The components of tea tree oil, particularly terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, mediate antimicrobial actions by disrupting the structural and functional integrity of bacterial membrane. Hydrocarbons are capable of partitioning into the cell and cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms and disrupt their vital functions, which may result in leakage of ions such as potassium, and the inhibition of respiration 2. Eventually, cell lysis may occur due to weakening of the cell wall, and loss of turgor pressure and subsequent rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane 3. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material may be indicative of a damaged cytoplasmic membrane and loss of nucleic acids 3. In E. coli, perturbed potassium homeostasis, glucose-dependent respiration, cell morphology, and ability to exclude propidium iodide was observed.

Tea tree oil also mediates its antifungal actions in a similar way, where it alters the permeability of Candida albicans and inhibits its respiration in a dose-dependent manner 2. Plasma and mitochondrial membranes of fungal species are also thought to be negatively affected by inhibition of glucose-induced medium acidification by tea tree oil, which involves inhibition of membrane ATPase responsible for the expulsion of protons 2. Tea tree oil also inhibits the formation of germ tubes, or mycelial conversion, in C. albicans, thereby disrupting cell morphogenesis 2. Water-soluble fraction of TTO, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, can inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 by human peripheral monocytes by approximately 50% and that of prostaglandin E2 by about 30% after 40 h 2. These components of tea tree oil may also suppress superoxide production by agonist-stimulated monocytes and decrease the production of reactive oxygen species by both stimulated neutrophils and monocytes 2.

Absorption

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Route of elimination

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Half-life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The 50% lethal dose for TTO in a rat model is 1.9 to 2.6 mL/kg, and doses ≤1.5 g/kg was associated with ataxia and lethargy. Dermal patches containing 10% of tea tree oil was not associated with any irritant reactions. Topically-applied tea tree oil rarely causes systemic toxicity 2. Dermal application of approximately 120 ml of undiluted tea tree oil to three cats with shaved but intact skin resulted in symptoms of hypothermia, uncoordination, dehydration, and trembling and in the death of one of the cats 2.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alkmene Anti Spot padLiquid48 g/100gTopicalMann & Schroeder GmbH2017-01-16Not applicableUS flag
Burnaid Burn GelGel10 mg/1gTopicalClear Healthcare Llc2013-11-04Not applicableUS flag
Jeopureun Chowon Wiae Hand sanitizerGel1.0 g/100mLTopicalDaraeworld Co., Ltd.2020-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Jeopureun Chowon Wiae Hand sanitizerLiquid1.0 g/100mLTopicalDaraeworld Co., Ltd.2020-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Jeopureun Chowon Wiae Hand sanitizerSpray1.0 g/100mLTopicalDaraeworld Co., Ltd.2020-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Mela-gel 23%Gel23 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1994-12-312001-09-24Canada flag
Suyan JeongdanSoap0.5 g/100gTopicalCellinbio Co Ltd2011-12-12Not applicableUS flag
T36-C7 - Liq 100%Liquid100 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1995-12-312001-04-02Canada flag
T40-C5 - Liq 100%Liquid100 %TopicalMelaleuca, Inc.1995-12-312001-09-01Canada flag
Tea Tree AntisepticOil15 mL/15mLTopicalIntegria Healthcare Us Inc.2011-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Cellskin Clean Pine MistTea tree oil (0.01 g/100mL) + Eucalyptus oil (0.01 g/100mL) + Grapefruit (0.05 g/100mL)SprayTopicalGtg Wellness Co., Ltd.2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Eczema TherapyTea tree oil (0.2 g/100g) + Aloe vera leaf (0.12 g/100g) + Chamomile (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalGolden B America, Llc.2018-03-13Not applicableUS flag
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2013-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUS flag
Euky Bear Antiseptic SprayTea tree oil (18 mg/ml) + Eucalyptus oil (136 mg/ml) + Lavender oil (9 mg/ml)SprayTopicalElite Natural Products Sdn Bhd2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Golf Pain Away GPATea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
INCORD Disposable Feminine CleansingTea tree oil (0.001 g/100g) + Centella asiatica (0.09 g/100g) + Propolis wax (0.001 g/100g)GelVaginalHucordbio Co., Ltd.2022-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Muscle and Joint Heat CreamTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g) + Methyl salicylate (50 mg/1g)CreamTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUS flag
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-10-01Not applicableUS flag
Out Back Pain ReliefTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alkmene Anti Spot padTea tree oil (48 g/100g)LiquidTopicalMann & Schroeder GmbH2017-01-16Not applicableUS flag
Burnaid Burn GelTea tree oil (10 mg/1g)GelTopicalClear Healthcare Llc2013-11-04Not applicableUS flag
Cellskin Clean Pine MistTea tree oil (0.01 g/100mL) + Eucalyptus oil (0.01 g/100mL) + Grapefruit (0.05 g/100mL)SprayTopicalGtg Wellness Co., Ltd.2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Eczema TherapyTea tree oil (0.2 g/100g) + Aloe vera leaf (0.12 g/100g) + Chamomile (0.3 g/100g)SoapTopicalGolden B America, Llc.2018-03-13Not applicableUS flag
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalUltra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd2015-02-16Not applicableUS flag
Elmore OilTea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2013-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Golf Pain Away GPATea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) + Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL)OilTopicalElmore Oil Company Pty Ltd2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
INCORD Disposable Feminine CleansingTea tree oil (0.001 g/100g) + Centella asiatica (0.09 g/100g) + Propolis wax (0.001 g/100g)GelVaginalHucordbio Co., Ltd.2022-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Jeopureun Chowon Wiae Hand sanitizerTea tree oil (1.0 g/100mL)SprayTopicalDaraeworld Co., Ltd.2020-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Jeopureun Chowon Wiae Hand sanitizerTea tree oil (1.0 g/100mL)GelTopicalDaraeworld Co., Ltd.2020-04-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
VIF565UC2G
CAS number
68647-73-4

References

General References
  1. Pazyar N, Yaghoobi R, Bagherani N, Kazerouni A: A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology. Int J Dermatol. 2013 Jul;52(7):784-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05654.x. Epub 2012 Sep 24. [Article]
  2. Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV: Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):50-62. doi: 10.1128/CMR.19.1.50-62.2006. [Article]
  3. Carson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV: Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jun;46(6):1914-20. [Article]
PubChem Substance
347911156
RxNav
69627
Wikipedia
Tea_tree_oil

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentNon Specific Vaginitis1
4CompletedTreatmentSeborrheic Blepharitis1
2CompletedPreventionEnd Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis1
2CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SwabTopical25 %
LiquidTopical48 g/100g
GelTopical10 mg/1g
SprayTopical
GelVaginal
GelTopical1.0 g/100mL
LiquidTopical1.0 g/100mL
SprayTopical1.0 g/100mL
GelTopical23 %
CreamTopical
OilTopical
SoapTopical
LiquidTopical
SoapTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidTopical100 %
OilTopical15 mL/15mL
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical4 %
CreamTopical5 g/100g
OilTopical25 mL/25mL
OilTopical50 mL/50mL
OintmentTopical3 g/50g
SolutionTopical
ClothTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySparingly solubleCarson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2002;46(6):1914-1920. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.6.1914-1920.2002.

Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated at September 29, 2022 07:52