Identification

Summary

Cod liver oil is an ingredient found in a variety of nutritional products.

Generic Name
Cod liver oil
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11321
Background

Cod liver oil is extracted from the liver of cod fish and mainly consists of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Also being a rich source of vitamin A and D, cod liver oil can be taken orally as daily supplements. It is used as an adjunct treatment and preventative therapy of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis while meeting the consumption criteria.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Synonyms
  • Cod liver oil
  • Cod-liver oil
  • Gadus morhua liver oil
  • Oils, cod liver
  • Oleum morrhuae

Pharmacology

Indication

Cod liver oil is predominantly manufactured, marketed, and used by the population at large as a general nutraceutical dietary supplement 1,2,7.

Historically, cod liver oil was often given to children because the vitamin d content in the oil had been shown to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency and condition of rickets associated with it 2. Over time, this common use in children growing up may have conferred upon cod liver oil its identity as a healthy and useful all-purpose dietary supplement.

However, since cod liver oil is a composite of several other nutritional compounds including the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as vitamin A and vitamin D 2,7,6, the presence in varying amounts of all of these compounds at once makes it difficult to recommend or use cod liver oil as an appropriate supplement to confer any one particular health effect or for any one particular nutritional deficiency.

Regardless, because it does contain a combination of a number of important and healthy nutritional compounds, cod liver oil has sometimes been recommended in the literature for conferring the health effects of some of these compounds, such as the potential use of cod liver oil supplements in post-heart attack patients for secondary prophylaxis associated with the use of omega-3 fatty acids 5.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

As cod liver oil is a composite of several other nutritional compounds including the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as vitamin A and vitamin D 2,7,6, the presence in varying amounts of all of these compounds at once makes it difficult to recommend or use cod liver oil as an appropriate supplement to confer any one particular health effect or for any one particular nutritional deficiency.

For example, one tablespoon of cod liver oil contains approximately 4,080 ug of retinol (vitamin A) and 34 ug (1,360 IU) of vitamin D 6. Since the general dietary reference intake of vitamin A is only 900 ug per day for adult men, 700 ug per day for women, and 3000 ug per day as the tolerable upper intake level, the regular intake of cod liver oil as a regular supplement can result in harmful levels of vitamin A accumulating in the liver and sufficient to cause hypervitaminosis A 3, which is associated with various symptoms such as blurred vision, changes in consciousness, skin and hair changes, liver damage, among many others.

Moreover, while cod liver oil only contains a certain percentage of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA per amount of the oil 6, separate fish oils supplement products that exclusively consist of only EPA and DHA are available in a great variety of different percentage content formulations, even including prescription strength formulations should certain patients need such a level of therapy. Furthermore, such exclusive omega-3 fatty acid supplement products do not contain any vitamin A or D either, which allows patients to use the supplements without any concern about affecting their vitamin A or D levels or exposing themselves to the unnecessary excess intake of vitamins.

Subsequently, although cod liver oil contains a combination of healthy dietary supplements like EPA, DHA, vitamin A, and vitamin D, the presence in varying amounts of all of these compounds all at once makes it difficult to effectively titrate for appropriate amounts of intake for all the compounds involved when using cod liver oil as a general supplement, often resulting in either an excess or insufficient amount of one or more the aforementioned compounds.

Nevertheless, because cod liver oil does consist of the component compounds of EPA, DHA, vitamin A, and vitamin D, further information about the pharmacodynamics of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Mechanism of action

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the mechanisms of action of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Absorption

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the absorptions of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Volume of distribution

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the volumes of distribution of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Protein binding

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the protein binding of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Metabolism

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the metabolism of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Route of elimination

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the routes of elimination of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Half-life

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the half-lives of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Clearance

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the clearance of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

As cod liver oil consists of the component compounds of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin A, and vitamin D 2,7,6 further information about the toxicities of these cod liver oil components can be found by searching for fish oil, vitamin A, and vitamin D on DrugBank.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Products2
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
COD LIVER OIL CAPSULESCapsule270 mgห้างหุ้นส่วนจำกัด โรเยลดรักส์1984-02-14Not applicableThailand flag
Cod Liver Oil Liq 100%Liquid100 %OralRegal Pharms, Division Of Bradcan Corporation1977-12-311998-07-29Canada flag
น้ำมันตับปลาCapsule275 mgบริษัท เมก้า ไลฟ์ไซแอ็นซ์ จำกัด (มหาชน)1988-03-02Not applicableThailand flag
น้ำมันตับปลา พาตาร์Capsule275 mgบริษัท พาตาร์แลบ (2517) จำกัด จำกัด2013-03-20Not applicableThailand flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Caldesene Medicated OintmentCod liver oil (15 %) + Zinc oxide (15 %)OintmentTopicalNovartis1994-04-212000-07-19Canada flag
CURACID Dermal for cuts and burnsCod liver oil (100 mg/1mL) + Petrolatum (300 mg/1mL)OintmentTopicalRev Pharma Corp.2019-05-01Not applicableUS flag
CurefiniCod liver oil (100 mg/1mL) + Petrolatum (300 mg/1mL)OintmentTopicalRev Pharma Corp.2013-01-17Not applicableUS flag
CurefiniCod liver oil (100 mg/1mL) + Petrolatum (300 mg/1mL)OintmentTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-01-17Not applicableUS flag
Curefini DermalCod liver oil (100 mg/1mL) + Petrolatum (300 mg/1mL)OintmentTopicalRev Pharma Corp2016-08-02Not applicableUS flag
Senophile DermalCod liver oil (10 g/100g) + Petrolatum (40 g/100g)OintmentTopicalPure Source, Llc2014-12-24Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
BBL281NWFG
CAS number
8001-69-2

References

General References
  1. Lentjes MA, Welch AA, Mulligan AA, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT: Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Nutrients. 2014 Oct 16;6(10):4320-37. doi: 10.3390/nu6104320. [Article]
  2. Rajakumar K: Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):e132-5. [Article]
  3. Lips P: Hypervitaminosis A and fractures. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 23;348(4):347-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe020167. [Article]
  4. Haddad JG: Vitamin D--solar rays, the Milky Way, or both? N Engl J Med. 1992 Apr 30;326(18):1213-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199204303261808. [Article]
  5. von Schacky C: n-3 fatty acids and the prevention of coronary atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):224S-7S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/71.1.224s. [Article]
  6. USDA: Full Report (All Nutrients): 04589, Fish oil, cod liver [Link]
  7. NIH NCCIH Clinical Digest for Health Professionals: Omega-3 Fatty Acids - What the Science Says [Link]
PubChem Substance
347911186
RxNav
2669
Wikipedia
Cod_liver_oil
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
EmulsionOral
OilOral
Capsule270 mg
LiquidOral100 %
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
OintmentTopical
SyrupOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Capsule275 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:52 / Updated at September 28, 2021 21:54