This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.


Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are derived from human neonatal heart tissue with a distinct antigenic profile (CD105+, CD45-, and CD90low). They exert their effects by secreting exosomes: nanometer-sized, membrane-bound vesicles used for the purpose of cell-cell communication. CDCs target multiple cytokine pathways associated with poor outcomes (e.g. TNFa, IFN-y, IL-1B, and IL-15). The anti-inflammatory effects of CDC work through polarizing macrophages and restoring tissue function.

Biologic Classification
Cell transplant therapies
Other cell transplant therapies
Not Available
External IDs
  • CAP-1002



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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Mechanism of action

Cardiosphere-derived cell exosomes can reduce cardiac scar size, improve myocardial function, and attenuate damaging remodeling that occurs from infections. CAP-1002 was formulated as an intravenous infusion of cardiosphere-derived cells and is currently being investigated as a treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients.


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Volume of distribution

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Protein binding

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Route of elimination

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Adverse Effects
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Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
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Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
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Food Interactions
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Drug Categories
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Affected organisms
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Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
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General References
  1. Chakravarty T, Makkar RR, Ascheim DD, Traverse JH, Schatz R, DeMaria A, Francis GS, Povsic TJ, Smith RR, Lima JA, Pogoda JM, Marban L, Henry TD: ALLogeneic Heart STem Cells to Achieve Myocardial Regeneration (ALLSTAR) Trial: Rationale and Design. Cell Transplant. 2017 Feb 16;26(2):205-214. doi: 10.3727/096368916X692933. Epub 2016 Aug 18. [Article]
  2. Taylor M, Jefferies J, Byrne B, Lima J, Ambale-Venkatesh B, Ostovaneh MR, Makkar R, Goldstein B, Smith RR, Fudge J, Malliaras K, Fedor B, Rudy J, Pogoda JM, Marban L, Ascheim DD, Marban E, Victor RG: Cardiac and skeletal muscle effects in the randomized HOPE-Duchenne trial. Neurology. 2019 Feb 19;92(8):e866-e878. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006950. Epub 2019 Jan 23. [Article]
  3. Singh S, Chakravarty T, Chen P, Akhmerov A, Falk J, Friedman O, Zaman T, Ebinger JE, Gheorghiu M, Marban L, Marban E, Makkar RR: Allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CAP-1002) in critically ill COVID-19 patients: compassionate-use case series. Basic Res Cardiol. 2020 May 12;115(4):36. doi: 10.1007/s00395-020-0795-1. [Article]
  4. Kapelios CJ, Nanas JN, Malliaras K: Allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells for myocardial regeneration: current progress and recent results. Future Cardiol. 2016 Jan;12(1):87-100. doi: 10.2217/fca.15.72. Epub 2015 Dec 21. [Article]
  5. Saha P, Sharma S, Korutla L, Datla SR, Shoja-Taheri F, Mishra R, Bigham GE, Sarkar M, Morales D, Bittle G, Gunasekaran M, Ambastha C, Arfat MY, Li D, Habertheuer A, Hu R, Platt MO, Yang P, Davis ME, Vallabhajosyula P, Kaushal S: Circulating exosomes derived from transplanted progenitor cells aid the functional recovery of ischemic myocardium. Sci Transl Med. 2019 May 22;11(493). pii: 11/493/eaau1168. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau1168. [Article]
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
3RecruitingTreatmentDiseases of the Nervous System / Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) / Genetic Diseases, Inborn / Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / Muscular Disorders, Atrophic / Musculoskeletal Disorders / Neuromuscular Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Heart Failure, Diastolic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiseases of the Nervous System / Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) / Genetic Diseases, Inborn / Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / Muscular Disorders, Atrophic / Musculoskeletal Disorders / Neuromuscular Disorders1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentDilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) / Heart Failure / Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy / Non Ischemic Cardiomyopathy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCardiomyopathy / Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)1


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Dosage Forms
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Experimental Properties
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Drug created at August 11, 2020 21:15 / Updated at August 13, 2020 07:02