Plasminogen

Details

Name
Plasminogen
Synonyms
  • 3.4.21.7
Gene Name
PLG
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016037|Plasminogen
MEHKEVVLLLLLFLKSGQGEPLDDYVNTQGASLFSVTKKQLGAGSIEECAAKCEEDEEFT
CRAFQYHSKEQQCVIMAENRKSSIIIRMRDVVLFEKKVYLSECKTGNGKNYRGTMSKTKN
GITCQKWSSTSPHRPRFSPATHPSEGLEENYCRNPDNDPQGPWCYTTDPEKRYDYCDILE
CEEECMHCSGENYDGKISKTMSGLECQAWDSQSPHAHGYIPSKFPNKNLKKNYCRNPDRE
LRPWCFTTDPNKRWELCDIPRCTTPPPSSGPTYQCLKGTGENYRGNVAVTVSGHTCQHWS
AQTPHTHNRTPENFPCKNLDENYCRNPDGKRAPWCHTTNSQVRWEYCKIPSCDSSPVSTE
QLAPTAPPELTPVVQDCYHGDGQSYRGTSSTTTTGKKCQSWSSMTPHRHQKTPENYPNAG
LTMNYCRNPDADKGPWCFTTDPSVRWEYCNLKKCSGTEASVVAPPPVVLLPDVETPSEED
CMFGNGKGYRGKRATTVTGTPCQDWAAQEPHRHSIFTPETNPRAGLEKNYCRNPDGDVGG
PWCYTTNPRKLYDYCDVPQCAAPSFDCGKPQVEPKKCPGRVVGGCVAHPHSWPWQVSLRT
RFGMHFCGGTLISPEWVLTAAHCLEKSPRPSSYKVILGAHQEVNLEPHVQEIEVSRLFLE
PTRKDIALLKLSSPAVITDKVIPACLPSPNYVVADRTECFITGWGETQGTFGAGLLKEAQ
LPVIENKVCNRYEFLNGRVQSTELCAGHLAGGTDSCQGDSGGPLVCFEKDKYILQGVTSW
GLGCARPNKPGVYVRVSRFVTWIEGVMRNN
Number of residues
810
Molecular Weight
90568.415
Theoretical pI
7.25
GO Classification
Functions
apolipoprotein binding / protein domain specific binding / receptor binding / serine-type endopeptidase activity / serine-type peptidase activity
Processes
blood coagulation / cellular protein metabolic process / extracellular matrix disassembly / extracellular matrix organization / fibrinolysis / negative regulation of cell proliferation / negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin / negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion / negative regulation of fibrinolysis / platelet activation / platelet degranulation / positive regulation of fibrinolysis / proteolysis / tissue remodeling
Components
blood microparticle / cell surface / extracellular exosome / extracellular region / extracellular space / extrinsic component of external side of plasma membrane / plasma membrane / platelet alpha granule lumen
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Secreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016038|Plasminogen (PLG)
ATGGAACATAAGGAAGTGGTTCTTCTACTTCTTTTATTTCTGAAATCAGGTCAAGGAGAG
CCTCTGGATGACTATGTGAATACCCAGGGGGCTTCACTGTTCAGTGTCACTAAGAAGCAG
CTGGGAGCAGGAAGTATAGAAGAATGTGCAGCAAAATGTGAGGAGGACGAAGAATTCACC
TGCAGGGCATTCCAATATCACAGTAAAGAGCAACAATGTGTGATAATGGCTGAAAACAGG
AAGTCCTCCATAATCATTAGGATGAGAGATGTAGTTTTATTTGAAAAGAAAGTGTATCTC
TCAGAGTGCAAGACTGGGAATGGAAAGAACTACAGAGGGACGATGTCCAAAACAAAAAAT
GGCATCACCTGTCAAAAATGGAGTTCCACTTCTCCCCACAGACCTAGATTCTCACCTGCT
ACACACCCCTCAGAGGGACTGGAGGAGAACTACTGCAGGAATCCAGACAACGATCCGCAG
GGGCCCTGGTGCTATACTACTGATCCAGAAAAGAGATATGACTACTGCGACATTCTTGAG
TGTGAAGAGGAATGTATGCATTGCAGTGGAGAAAACTATGACGGCAAAATTTCCAAGACC
ATGTCTGGACTGGAATGCCAGGCCTGGGACTCTCAGAGCCCACACGCTCATGGATACATT
CCTTCCAAATTTCCAAACAAGAACCTGAAGAAGAATTACTGTCGTAACCCCGATAGGGAG
CTGCGGCCTTGGTGTTTCACCACCGACCCCAACAAGCGCTGGGAACTTTGTGACATCCCC
CGCTGCACAACACCTCCACCATCTTCTGGTCCCACCTACCAGTGTCTGAAGGGAACAGGT
GAAAACTATCGCGGGAATGTGGCTGTTACCGTGTCCGGGCACACCTGTCAGCACTGGAGT
GCACAGACCCCTCACACACATAACAGGACACCAGAAAACTTCCCCTGCAAAAATTTGGAT
GAAAACTACTGCCGCAATCCTGACGGAAAAAGGGCCCCATGGTGCCATACAACCAACAGC
CAAGTGCGGTGGGAGTACTGTAAGATACCGTCCTGTGACTCCTCCCCAGTATCCACGGAA
CAATTGGCTCCCACAGCACCACCTGAGCTAACCCCTGTGGTCCAGGACTGCTACCATGGT
GATGGACAGAGCTACCGAGGCACATCCTCCACCACCACCACAGGAAAGAAGTGTCAGTCT
TGGTCATCTATGACACCACACCGGCACCAGAAGACCCCAGAAAACTACCCAAATGCTGGC
CTGACAATGAACTACTGCAGGAATCCAGATGCCGATAAAGGCCCCTGGTGTTTTACCACA
GACCCCAGCGTCAGGTGGGAGTACTGCAACCTGAAAAAATGCTCAGGAACAGAAGCGAGT
GTTGTAGCACCTCCGCCTGTTGTCCTGCTTCCAGATGTAGAGACTCCTTCCGAAGAAGAC
TGTATGTTTGGGAATGGGAAAGGATACCGAGGCAAGAGGGCGACCACTGTTACTGGGACG
CCATGCCAGGACTGGGCTGCCCAGGAGCCCCATAGACACAGCATTTTCACTCCAGAGACA
AATCCACGGGCGGGTCTGGAAAAAAATTACTGCCGTAACCCTGATGGTGATGTAGGTGGT
CCCTGGTGCTACACGACAAATCCAAGAAAACTTTACGACTACTGTGATGTCCCTCAGTGT
GCGGCCCCTTCATTTGATTGTGGGAAGCCTCAAGTGGAGCCGAAGAAATGTCCTGGAAGG
GTTGTAGGGGGGTGTGTGGCCCACCCACATTCCTGGCCCTGGCAAGTCAGTCTTAGAACA
AGGTTTGGAATGCACTTCTGTGGAGGCACCTTGATATCCCCAGAGTGGGTGTTGACTGCT
GCCCACTGCTTGGAGAAGTCCCCAAGGCCTTCATCCTACAAGGTCATCCTGGGTGCACAC
CAAGAAGTGAATCTCGAACCGCATGTTCAGGAAATAGAAGTGTCTAGGCTGTTCTTGGAG
CCCACACGAAAAGATATTGCCTTGCTAAAGCTAAGCAGTCCTGCCGTCATCACTGACAAA
GTAATCCCAGCTTGTCTGCCATCCCCAAATTATGTGGTCGCTGACCGGACCGAATGTTTC
ATCACTGGCTGGGGAGAAACCCAAGGTACTTTTGGAGCTGGCCTTCTCAAGGAAGCCCAG
CTCCCTGTGATTGAGAATAAAGTGTGCAATCGCTATGAGTTTCTGAATGGAAGAGTCCAA
TCCACCGAACTCTGTGCTGGGCATTTGGCCGGAGGCACTGACAGTTGCCAGGGTGACAGT
GGAGGTCCTCTGGTTTGCTTCGAGAAGGACAAATACATTTTACAAGGAGTCACTTCTTGG
GGTCTTGGCTGTGCACGCCCCAATAAGCCTGGTGTCTATGTTCGTGTTTCAAGGTTTGTT
ACTTGGATTGAGGGAGTGATGAGAAATAATTAA
Chromosome Location
6
Locus
6q26
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP00747
UniProtKB Entry NamePLMN_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID387026
GenBank Gene IDX05199
GenAtlas IDPLG
HGNC IDHGNC:9071
General References
  1. Petersen TE, Martzen MR, Ichinose A, Davie EW: Characterization of the gene for human plasminogen, a key proenzyme in the fibrinolytic system. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 15;265(11):6104-11. [PubMed:2318848]
  2. Forsgren M, Raden B, Israelsson M, Larsson K, Heden LO: Molecular cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone for human plasminogen. FEBS Lett. 1987 Mar 23;213(2):254-60. [PubMed:3030813]
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  8. Wiman B: Primary structure of the B-chain of human plasmin. Eur J Biochem. 1977 Jun 1;76(1):129-37. [PubMed:142009]
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  12. Vali Z, Patthy L: The fibrin-binding site of human plasminogen. Arginines 32 and 34 are essential for fibrin affinity of the kringle 1 domain. J Biol Chem. 1984 Nov 25;259(22):13690-4. [PubMed:6094526]
  13. Wang H, Prorok M, Bretthauer RK, Castellino FJ: Serine-578 is a major phosphorylation locus in human plasma plasminogen. Biochemistry. 1997 Jul 1;36(26):8100-6. [PubMed:9201958]
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  29. Wu TP, Padmanabhan K, Tulinsky A, Mulichak AM: The refined structure of the epsilon-aminocaproic acid complex of human plasminogen kringle 4. Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 29;30(43):10589-94. [PubMed:1657149]
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  36. Rios-Steiner JL, Schenone M, Mochalkin I, Tulinsky A, Castellino FJ: Structure and binding determinants of the recombinant kringle-2 domain of human plasminogen to an internal peptide from a group A Streptococcal surface protein. J Mol Biol. 2001 May 11;308(4):705-19. [PubMed:11350170]
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  44. Sohndel S, Hu CK, Marti D, Affolter M, Schaller J, Llinas M, Rickli EE: Recombinant gene expression and 1H NMR characteristics of the kringle (2 + 3) supermodule: spectroscopic/functional individuality of plasminogen kringle domains. Biochemistry. 1996 Feb 20;35(7):2357-64. [PubMed:8652577]
  45. Marti DN, Hu CK, An SS, von Haller P, Schaller J, Llinas M: Ligand preferences of kringle 2 and homologous domains of human plasminogen: canvassing weak, intermediate, and high-affinity binding sites by 1H-NMR. Biochemistry. 1997 Sep 30;36(39):11591-604. [PubMed:9305949]
  46. Ichinose A, Espling ES, Takamatsu J, Saito H, Shinmyozu K, Maruyama I, Petersen TE, Davie EW: Two types of abnormal genes for plasminogen in families with a predisposition for thrombosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):115-9. [PubMed:1986355]
  47. Azuma H, Uno Y, Shigekiyo T, Saito S: Congenital plasminogen deficiency caused by a Ser572 to Pro mutation. Blood. 1993 Jul 15;82(2):475-80. [PubMed:8392398]
  48. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N: Plasminogen Tochigi: inactive plasmin resulting from replacement of alanine-600 by threonine in the active site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(20):6132-6. [PubMed:6216475]
  49. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N, Takamatsu J, Kamiya T: Plasminogens Tochigi II and Nagoya: two additional molecular defects with Ala-600----Thr replacement found in plasmin light chain variants. J Biochem. 1984 Aug;96(2):277-87. [PubMed:6238949]
  50. Kikuchi S, Yamanouchi Y, Li L, Kobayashi K, Ijima H, Miyazaki R, Tsuchiya S, Hamaguchi H: Plasminogen with type-I mutation is polymorphic in the Japanese population. Hum Genet. 1992 Sep-Oct;90(1-2):7-11. [PubMed:1427790]
  51. Schuster V, Mingers AM, Seidenspinner S, Nussgens Z, Pukrop T, Kreth HW: Homozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene of two unrelated girls with ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1997 Aug 1;90(3):958-66. [PubMed:9242524]
  52. Higuchi Y, Furihata K, Ueno I, Ishikawa S, Okumura N, Tozuka M, Sakurai N: Plasminogen Kanagawa-I, a novel missense mutation, is caused by the amino acid substitution G732R. Br J Haematol. 1998 Dec;103(3):867-70. [PubMed:9858247]
  53. Schuster V, Seidenspinner S, Zeitler P, Escher C, Pleyer U, Bernauer W, Stiehm ER, Isenberg S, Seregard S, Olsson T, Mingers AM, Schambeck C, Kreth HW: Compound-heterozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene predispose to the development of ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1999 May 15;93(10):3457-66. [PubMed:10233898]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00302Tranexamic acidapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00513Aminocaproic acidapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00013Urokinaseapproved, investigational, withdrawnyesactivatorDetails
DB03709BicineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00086Streptokinaseapproved, investigationalyesactivatorDetails
DB04925DesmoteplaseinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB06692Aprotininapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownDetails
DB00031TenecteplaseapprovedyesactivatorDetails
DB00009AlteplaseapprovedyesactivatorDetails
DB00029AnistreplaseapprovedyesactivatorDetails
DB00015Reteplaseapproved, investigationalyesactivatorDetails
DB12831GabexateinvestigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB09130Copperapproved, investigationalunknownDetails