- Epinephrine bitartrate
- Drug Entry
Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades 10, 11, 12. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths 8. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection.
In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics 20. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest 3, 4. It can be used in severe cases of croup 14.
- Accession Number
- Adrenaline Acid Tartrate / epinephrine acid tartrate
- CAS Number
- Average: 333.2913
- Chemical Formula
- InChI Key
- IUPAC Name
- (2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid; 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
- Predicted Properties
Property Value Source Water Solubility 18.6 mg/mL ALOGPS logP -0.82 ALOGPS logP -0.43 Chemaxon logS -0.99 ALOGPS pKa (Strongest Acidic) 9.69 Chemaxon pKa (Strongest Basic) 8.91 Chemaxon Physiological Charge 1 Chemaxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 4 Chemaxon Hydrogen Donor Count 4 Chemaxon Polar Surface Area 72.72 Å2 Chemaxon Rotatable Bond Count 6 Chemaxon Refractivity 49.23 m3·mol-1 Chemaxon Polarizability 18.91 Å3 Chemaxon Number of Rings 1 Chemaxon Bioavailability 1 Chemaxon Rule of Five Yes Chemaxon Ghose Filter No Chemaxon Veber's Rule No Chemaxon MDDR-like Rule No Chemaxon