Alcaftadine is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist for ophthalmic use to prevent itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.
- Brand Names
- Generic Name
- DrugBank Accession Number
Alcaftadine is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist indicated for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. This drug was approved in July 2010.
- Small Molecule
- Average: 307.3895
- Chemical Formula
- External IDs
- R 89674
For the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.Reduce drug development failure ratesBuild, train, & validate machine-learning modelswith evidence-based and structured datasets.Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
- Associated Conditions
- Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
- Avoid life-threatening adverse drug eventsImprove clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Following bilateral topical ocular administration of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution, 0.25%, the mean plasma Cmax of alcaftadine was approximately 60 pg/mL and the median Tmax occurred at 15 minutes. Plasma concentrations of alcaftadine were below the lower limit of quantification (10 pg/mL) by 3 hours after dosing. The mean Cmax of the active carboxylic acid metabolite was approximately 3 ng/mL and occurred at 1 hour after dosing. Plasma concentrations of the carboxylic acid metabolite were below the lower limit of quantification (100 pg/mL) by 12 hours after dosing.
- Mechanism of action
Alcaftadine is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist and inhibitor of the release of histamine from mast cells. Decreased chemotaxis and inhibition of eosinophil activation has also been demonstrated.
Target Actions Organism UHistamine H1 receptorantagonist Humans
- Volume of distribution
- Protein binding
The protein binding of alcaftadine and the active metabolite are 39.2% and 62.7% respectively.
The metabolism of alcaftadine is mediated by non-CYP450 cytosolic enzymes to the active carboxylic acid metabolite.
- Route of elimination
Based on data following oral administration of alcaftadine, the carboxylic acid metabolite is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine.
The elimination half-life of the carboxylic acid metabolite is approximately 2 hours following topical ocular administration.
- Adverse Effects
- Improve decision support & research outcomesWith structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Pathway Category Alcaftadine H1-Antihistamine Action Drug action
- Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
- Not Available
- Drug Interactions
- This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Drug Interaction Fexinidazole The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alcaftadine is combined with Fexinidazole. Fluoxetine The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Fluoxetine is combined with Alcaftadine. Haloperidol The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Alcaftadine is combined with Haloperidol. Hydroxyzine The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Alcaftadine is combined with Hydroxyzine. Hyoscyamine Alcaftadine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Hyoscyamine. Lefamulin Lefamulin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Alcaftadine. Pitolisant Alcaftadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pitolisant. Ponesimod The risk or severity of bradycardia can be increased when Ponesimod is combined with Alcaftadine. Trazodone The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Alcaftadine. Ziprasidone The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Alcaftadine is combined with Ziprasidone.Identify potential medication risksEasily compare up to 40 drugs with our drug interaction checker.Get severity rating, description, and management advice.Learn more
- Food Interactions
- No interactions found.
- Drug product information from 10+ global regionsOur datasets provide approved product information including:dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
- Brand Name Prescription Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/1mL Ophthalmic Physicians Total Care, Inc. 2011-08-19 Not applicable Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/1mL Ophthalmic Allergan, Inc. 2010-11-01 Not applicable Lastacaft Solution 2.5 mg/1mL Ophthalmic Vistakon Pharmaceuticals, LLC 2010-08-15 2010-10-13 Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/1mL Ophthalmic Rebel Distributors 2010-11-01 Not applicable
- ATC Codes
- S01GX11 — Alcaftadine
- Drug Categories
- Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
- This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an azepine ring (unsaturated seven-membered heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom).
- Organic compounds
- Super Class
- Organoheterocyclic compounds
- Sub Class
- Not Available
- Direct Parent
- Alternative Parents
- Carbonylimidazoles / Azepines / Aryl-aldehydes / Piperidines / N-substituted imidazoles / Benzenoids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives show 2 more
- Aldehyde / Amine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl-aldehyde / Azacycle / Azepine / Azole / Benzazepine / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidazole / Imidazole-4-carbonyl group / N-substituted imidazole / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Piperidine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine show 13 more
- Molecular Framework
- Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
- External Descriptors
- piperidines, tertiary amino compound, aldehyde, imidazobenzazepine (CHEBI:71023)
- Affected organisms
- Not Available
- CAS number
- InChI Key
- IUPAC Name
- General References
- Mahvan TD, Buckley WA, Hornecker JR: Alcaftadine for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Jul-Aug;46(7-8):1025-32. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q755. Epub 2012 Jul 17. [Article]
- Simons FE, Simons KJ: Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Dec;128(6):1139-1150.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Oct 27. [Article]
- Hussar DA, Samuel J: Vilazodone hydrochloride, linagliptin, and alcaftadine. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2011 Jul-Aug;51(4):557-9. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2011.11534. [Article]
- FDA label
- Download (146 KB)
- Download (567 KB)
- Clinical Trials
Phase Status Purpose Conditions Count 4 Completed Treatment Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) 3 4 Unknown Status Treatment Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) 1 4 Unknown Status Treatment Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) / Rhinoconjunctivitis 1 3 Completed Treatment Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) 4 3 Completed Treatment Healthy Volunteers Eligible for Study; Drug Being Developed for Allergic Conjunctivitis 1 Not Available Completed Not Available Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) 1
- Not Available
- Not Available
- Dosage Forms
Form Route Strength Liquid Ophthalmic 2.5 mg/1ml Solution Ophthalmic 2.5 mg/1mL Solution / drops Ophthalmic 2.5 mg/1mL Solution / drops Ophthalmic Solution Ophthalmic 2.5 mg
- Not Available
Patent Number Pediatric Extension Approved Expires (estimated) Region US8664215 No 2014-03-04 2027-12-23 US5468743 No 1995-11-21 2016-04-20 US10617695 No 2007-03-19 2027-03-19
- Experimental Properties
Property Value Source boiling point (°C) 556.247 °C at 760 mmHg. # http://www.lookchem.com/Product_842767/CasNo_147084-10-4/Alcaftadine.html#.UXtC3Ct5N_k water solubility slightly solubility FDA Label logP 3.202 # http://www.lookchem.com/Product_842767/CasNo_147084-10-4/Alcaftadine.html#.UXtC3Ct5N_k
- Predicted Properties
Property Value Source Water Solubility 0.333 mg/mL ALOGPS logP 2.09 ALOGPS logP 2.17 ChemAxon logS -3 ALOGPS pKa (Strongest Basic) 7.16 ChemAxon Physiological Charge 1 ChemAxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 3 ChemAxon Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon Polar Surface Area 38.13 Å2 ChemAxon Rotatable Bond Count 1 ChemAxon Refractivity 102.88 m3·mol-1 ChemAxon Polarizability 34.68 Å3 ChemAxon Number of Rings 4 ChemAxon Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon Ghose Filter Yes ChemAxon Veber's Rule Yes ChemAxon MDDR-like Rule No ChemAxon
- Predicted ADMET Features
Property Value Probability Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0 Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9745 Caco-2 permeable + 0.5974 P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8775 P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8923 P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.7024 Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.7448 CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7517 CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7096 CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.613 CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.6525 CYP450 2C9 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.6685 CYP450 2D6 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.6573 CYP450 2C19 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.7002 CYP450 3A4 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.8498 CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.6381 Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.561 Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9681 Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.969 Rat acute toxicity 2.7266 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.6292 hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.5603
- Mass Spec (NIST)
- Not Available
Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available
- Pharmacological action
- General Function
- Histamine receptor activity
- Specific Function
- In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
- Gene Name
- Uniprot ID
- Uniprot Name
- Histamine H1 receptor
- Molecular Weight
- 55783.61 Da
Drug created on September 14, 2010 16:21 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:52