Batroxobin

This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Generic Name
Batroxobin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09005
Background

Batroxobin is a defibrinogenating hemostatic agent derived from the venom of a pit viper, Bothrops atrox moojeni. In addition to batroxobin, the venom of Bothrops atrox has a composition of 10.2% neutral carbohydrate. Batroxobin is a serine protease, which cleaves the 16 Arginine - 17 Glycine bond in fibrinogen. The MW of batroxobin is approximately 43,000 g/mol-1, and it contains 231 amino acids.

Batroxobin is inactivated by alpha2-macroglobulin, but not anti-thrombin compounds. Batroxobin will also bind fibrinogen in a manner different than thrombin and with a higher affinity. Once bound to fibrin, it will cause fibrin accretion(clot formation) to a degree 18 folds greater than thrombin.

Currently use is experimental but trials have been conducted which support certain clinical applications. Recombinant Batroxobin in relatively affordable and could be accessed by mass production.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Experimental
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Blood factors
Protein Chemical Formula
Not Available
Protein Average Weight
Not Available
Sequences
Not Available
Synonyms
  • Batroxobin
  • Batroxobina
  • Batroxobine
  • Batroxobinum
  • Bothrops atrox blood-coagulation factor X activator
External IDs
  • DF 521
  • DF-521

Pharmacology

Indication

No approved indications. Batroxobin is a defibrongenating agent which has been observed to reduce fibrinogen levels and thus reduce clot risk when used intravenously.

Pharmacology
Reduce drug development failure rates
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Insensitive to thrombin inhibitors and capable of clotting platelet rich plasma without affecting platelet function.

Mechanism of action

Batroxobin is a thrombin like serine protease enzyme that will cleave fibrinogen. Cleavage at the16 Arginine - 17 Glycine bond in the A alpha chain of fibrinogen releases fibrinopeptide A and forms a fibrin I monomer that will spontaneously aggregate into a clot. The reduction of plasma fibrinogen by formation of fibrin microclots that are easily cleared by the reticuloendothelial system can decrease high blood viscosity which contributes to the formation of thromboemboli.

In addition, batroxobin is reported to induce fibrinolysis by inducing the endothelial release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells. This effect may potentially be dose dependant.

Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Products2
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International/Other Brands
Ba Qu Ting (Belda Gaoke Huatal Pharmaceutical, China) / Batraxobin (Tobishi Pharmaceutical, China) / Botroclot (Juggat, India) / Botropase (Han Lim, South Korea) / Defibrase (Tobishi Pharmaceutical, Japan) / Reptilase / Su Le Juan (Zhaoke Pharmaceutical, China) / Su Ling (Kangchen Pharmaceutical, China)

Categories

ATC Codes
B02BX03 — Batroxobin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
47RYF40GA9
CAS number
9039-61-6

References

General References
  1. Mannucci PM, Mari D: [Fibrinolytic and defibrinogenation therapy]. Ric Clin Lab. 1983;13 Suppl 3:245-55. [Article]
  2. Vu TT, Stafford AR, Leslie BA, Kim PY, Fredenburgh JC, Weitz JI: Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher affinity and promotes clot expansion to a greater extent than thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 7;288(23):16862-71. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.464750. Epub 2013 Apr 23. [Article]
  3. Wang J, Zhu YQ, Li MH, Zhao JG, Tan HQ, Wang JB, Liu F, Cheng YS: Batroxobin plus aspirin reduces restenosis after angioplasty for arterial occlusive disease in diabetic patients with lower-limb ischemia. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Jul;22(7):987-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 14. [Article]
  4. Xu G, Liu X, Zhu W, Yin Q, Zhang R, Fan X: Feasibility of treating hyperfibrinogenemia with intermittently administered batroxobin in patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack for secondary prevention. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2007 Mar;18(2):193-7. [Article]
  5. You KE, Koo MA, Lee DH, Kwon BJ, Lee MH, Hyon SH, Seomun Y, Kim JT, Park JC: The effective control of a bleeding injury using a medical adhesive containing batroxobin. Biomed Mater. 2014 Apr;9(2):025002. doi: 10.1088/1748-6041/9/2/025002. Epub 2014 Jan 31. [Article]
Wikipedia
Batroxobin

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBatroxobin / Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Drug created on June 17, 2014 22:15 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:52