Carbon dioxide

Identification

Summary

Carbon dioxide is a naturally-occurring gas used as a insufflation gas during minimally invasive surgeries to enlarge and stabilize body cavities to provide better visibility of the surgical area.

Generic Name
Carbon dioxide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09157
Background

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth. This naturally occurring chemical compound is composed of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. Medical Carbon Dioxide is a liquefied medicinal gas, supplied in cylinders filled to a high pressure. Medical Carbon Dioxide may be used in different situations, e.g. during bodily investigations, to inflate body cavities during surgery (such as key-hole surgery), iand in solid form (dry ice) for freezing of tissue and removal of warts.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 44.0095
Monoisotopic: 43.989829244
Chemical Formula
CO2
Synonyms
  • Carbon dioxide
External IDs
  • E-290
  • INS NO.290
  • INS-290

Pharmacology

Indication

Carbon dioxide is commonly used as an insufflation gas for minimal invasive surgery (laparoscopy, endoscopy, and arthroscopy) to enlarge and stabilize body cavities to provide better visibility of the surgical area. It has been used also in cryotherapy and as respiratory stimulant before and after anesthesia. It could be used also in expansion of blood vessels if required, to increase carbon dioxide level after rapid breathing, and to stimulate breathing after a period of nonbreathing.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Data not found.

Mechanism of action

Data not found.

Absorption

Data not found.

Volume of distribution

Data not found.

Protein binding

No protein binding data.

Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Data not found.

Half-life

Data not found.

Clearance

Data not found.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Signs of intoxication have been produced by a 30-minute exposure at 50,000 ppm , and a few minutes exposure at 70,000 to 100,000 ppm produces unconsciousness.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Air 90% Carbon Dioxide 10%Gas100 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)A-OX WELDING SUPPLY CO., INC.2015-03-11Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Air Liquide America Specialty Gases LLC1960-01-012016-10-01US flag
Carbon DioxideGas99 L/100LIntragastricSexton Weldilng Supply Co., Inc.1977-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Keen Compressed Gas Co. Inc.2019-06-11Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)AGL Inhalation Therapy Co.1966-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas99 L/100LRespiratory (inhalation)Norco, Inc2008-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas1000 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Carbonic, Inc.2009-12-29Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Roberts Oxygen Company, Inc.2011-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)Machine & Welding Supply Company Dba Arc3 Gases South2019-05-20Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideGas900 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)AMERICAN WELDING & GAS, INC.2013-10-17Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Carbon DioxideGas990 mL/1LRespiratory (inhalation)AGL Inhalation Therapy Co.1966-01-012010-07-19US flag
Carbon Dioxide 99%Gas99.0 %Air Products Canada Ltd/LtÉe.1988-12-312003-06-13Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CarbogenCarbon dioxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Messer Canada Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Carbon Dioxide 1% W AirCarbon dioxide (15 %) + Medical air (85 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Liquid Carbonic Inc.1990-12-311998-06-09Canada flag
Carbon Dioxide 1% W OxygenCarbon dioxide (7 %) + Oxygen (93 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Liquid Carbonic Inc.1990-12-311998-06-09Canada flag
Carbon Dioxide 12.1% W OxygenCarbon dioxide (23 %) + Oxygen (77 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair, Inc.1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Carbon Dioxide 15.1% W AirCarbon dioxide (30 %) + Medical air (70 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Liquid Carbonic Inc.1990-12-311998-06-09Canada flag
Carbon Dioxide 23.1% W OxygenCarbon dioxide (50 %) + Oxygen (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair, Inc.1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Carbon Dioxide 30.1% W AirCarbon dioxide (50 %) + Medical air (50 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Liquid Carbonic Inc.1990-12-311998-06-09Canada flag
Carbon Dioxide 7.1% W OxygenCarbon dioxide (12 %) + Oxygen (88 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair, Inc.1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Carbon Dioxide In Oxygen MixtureCarbon dioxide (10 %) + Oxygen (90 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Matheson Gas Products Canada Inc.1983-12-311997-12-24Canada flag
Carbon Dioxide MixtureCarbon dioxide (12 %) + Nitrogen (65 %) + Oxygen (23 %)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Liquid Carbonic Inc.1990-12-311998-06-09Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CarbogenCarbon dioxide (5 mL/1L) + Oxygen (95 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)WestAir Gases and Equipment, Inc.2000-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Esquire Gas Products Company, Inc1955-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (99 kg/100kg)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Acetylene Oxygen Company1936-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (990 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair, Puerto Rico Inc2005-10-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (992 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Intermountain Inc1985-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (992 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Northern California And Nevada, Inc.1965-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (99 L/100L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Gas North America LLC1990-11-28Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (992 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas West, Inc.1947-05-23Not applicableUS flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (992 mL/1L)GasIntraperitoneal; Respiratory (inhalation); Soft tissueAirgas Usa, Llc1997-11-062012-08-10US flag
Carbon DioxideCarbon dioxide (990 mL/1L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Praxair Distribution Southest Llc2008-09-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
V03AN02 — Carbon dioxide
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Other non-metal organides
Sub Class
Other non-metal oxides
Direct Parent
Other non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Inorganic oxide / Other non-metal oxide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
one-carbon compound, carbon oxide (CHEBI:16526) / a small molecule (CARBON-DIOXIDE)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
142M471B3J
CAS number
124-38-9
InChI Key
CURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3
IUPAC Name
methanedione
SMILES
O=C=O

References

General References
  1. Cheong JY, Keshava A, Witting P, Young CJ: Effects of Intraoperative Insufflation With Warmed, Humidified CO2 during Abdominal Surgery: A Review. Ann Coloproctol. 2018 Jun;34(3):125-137. doi: 10.3393/ac.2017.09.26. Epub 2018 Jun 30. [Article]
  2. product leaflet [Link]
  3. product info [Link]
  4. FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual: Compressed Medical Gases [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001967
KEGG Drug
D00004
KEGG Compound
C00011
PubChem Compound
280
PubChem Substance
310265070
ChemSpider
274
RxNav
2034
ChEBI
16526
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1231871
PharmGKB
PA448801
PDBe Ligand
CO2
Wikipedia
Carbon_dioxide
PDB Entries
1e5h / 1kek / 1krc / 1r3q / 2bgi / 2c3y / 2fvy / 2h31 / 2i61 / 2olq
show 96 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedOtherEndoscopy / Insufflation1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlopecia Areata (AA)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentVitiligo, Generalized1
3CompletedTreatmentBladder Cancer, Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentEndoscopy1
3RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Acute, Stroke Ischemic1
2CompletedTreatmentHeadache / Pain / Temporomandibular Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentNasal Congestion1
2CompletedTreatmentNeck Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPerennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
GasRespiratory (inhalation)100 mL/1L
GasIntragastric99 L/100L
GasIntraperitoneal; Respiratory (inhalation); Soft tissue992 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)1 g/1g
GasRespiratory (inhalation)1 L/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)1000 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)900 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 kg/100kg
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 L/100L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)990 g/1kg
GasRespiratory (inhalation)990 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)991 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)992 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)995 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
Gas99.0 %
GasRespiratory (inhalation)200 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)50 mL/1L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
GasRespiratory (inhalation)99 %
LiquidCutaneous992 mL/1L
GasNasal99 % v/v
GasSubcutaneous99 %
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility186.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS0.63ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-ffb540455919d1e43969
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e1cf88df1066f206d01f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0

Drug created on October 02, 2015 17:00 / Updated on September 19, 2021 19:53