Hypromellose

Identification

Summary

Hypromellose is an ingredient used in a wide variety of medications, and is not an approved medication.

Brand Names
Bion Tears, Clear Eyes Complete, Genteal, Genteal Tears, Genteal Tears Mild, Gonak, Goniovisc, Isopto Alkaline, Isopto Tears, Nature's Tears, Retaine Hpmc, Systane, Tears Lubricant, Tears Naturale, Tears Renewed, Visine Maximum Redness Relief, Visine Tired Eye Relief, Visine Totality
Generic Name
Hypromellose
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11075
Background

Hypromellose, or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 8, is a semisynthetic, inert, and viscoelastic polymer that forms a colloid solution when dissolved in water. It acts as a thickening agent, coating polymer, bioadhesive, solubility enhancer in solid dispersions, and binder in the process of granulation and in modified release formulations 2. It is a commonly used as a delivery component in oral pharmaceutical products that provides the release of a drug in a controlled fashion, effectively increasing the duration of release of a drug to prolong its therapeutic effects 1. Hypromellose is also found in eye drops as a lubricant 3.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Synonyms
  • Cellulose hydroxypropyl methyl ether
  • Cellulose, 2-hydroxypropyl methyl ether
  • Hipromelosa
  • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2208
  • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2910
  • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 4000
  • Hydroxypropyl methylcelluloses
  • Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose
  • Hypromellose
  • Hypromelloses

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as an ophthalmic protectant and lubricant, in artificial tears, and as a diagnostic aid (contact lens procedures; gonioscopy).4

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Hypromellose is the most commonly used in hydrophilic matrix fabrication. It allows for controlled release of drug substances, increasing duration of therapeutic effects 3. The physical characteristics of this drug resemble natural tears, providing lubrication to the ocular surface and maintaining corneal hydration in dry eye syndromes 7.

Hypromellose is considered an inert substance as it has no direct pharmacological activity. The viscosity promoting properties of hypromellose prolong the retention time and improve adhesion of synthetic tears to the cornea and conjunctiva. As a result, the tear film breakdown time is prolonged and/or the tear film stability is enhanced. A stable tear film protects the cornea from dryness and epithelial cells 6.

Hypromellose is a methyl and hydroxypropyl mixed ether of cellulose. It is utilized as artificial tears to prevent conjunctival and corneal damage due to impaired lacrimal secretions. It is also used as a visco-elastic promoting agent by maintaining a deep, viscous chamber and allowing for easier manipulation, helping the vitreous surface to be pushed back, thus preventing the formation of a postoperative flat chamber 5.

Mechanism of action

Promotes corneal wetting by the stabilization and thickening the precorneal tear film and prolonging the tear film breakdown time, which is usually shortened in dry eye conditions. Hypromellose also acts to lubricate and protect the eye 6.

The surface active properties of the vehicles found in artificial tears solutions act to stabilize the tear film and increase tear viscosity to prevent delay tear evaporation and delay tear drainage 4.

In the intact eye, the corneal surface is moistened primarily by the mucin that is produced in the conjunctiva. Mucin is adsorbed on the corneal surface and forms a hydrophilic surface. This creates a moisture barrier. In the typical dry eye, and particularly in case of mucin deficiency, the application of artificial tear fluid is highly recommended. Both its surface activity and its adsorptive capacity make hypromellose optimal for this use. Hypromellose has a physical-chemical action and leads to, in an aqueous solution, a reduced surface tension as well as an increased level of viscosity. Hypromellose adheres well to the cornea and conjunctiva and provides ample moisture. Irritation symptoms caused by blinking, which occur in the case of tear fluid deficiency, are therefore decreased and symptoms of epithelial desiccation are also alleviated 6.

TargetActionsOrganism
UEpithelial cell adhesion moleculeNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not systemically absorbed 6.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

LD 50 (Rat): > 5 g/kg MSDS.

Hypromellose is considered low toxicity to non-toxic 8.

Adverse events may include blurred vision and contact dermatitis 4. Hypersensitivity and intolerance reactions may occur (for example, eye burning, pain, increased lacrimation, a sensation of foreign body, conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid swelling, pruritus). The stickiness sensation of the eyelids, the decreased sense of smell, photosensitivity 6.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Hypromellose 2208 (100 mPa.S)B1QE5P712KNot AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2208 (15000 mPa.S)Z78RG6M2N2Not AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2906 (4000 mPa.S)5EYA69XGATNot AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2906 (50 mPa.S)612E703ZUQNot AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2910 (15 mPa.S)36SFW2JZ0WNot AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2910 (15000 mPa.S)288VBX44JCNot AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2910 (3 mPa.S)0VUT3PMY82Not AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2910 (4000 mPa.S)RN3152OP35Not AvailableNot applicable
Hypromellose 2910 (50 mPa.S)1IVH67816NNot AvailableNot applicable
International/Other Brands
Hymelose / Hyprosol / Ikleen / Intavis / Irimist / Melose / Melose Drop / Methocel / Naifa / Optichlor / Takflur
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
EntrocelSolution18 mg/1mLOralMallinckrodt2009-06-012012-10-31US flag
GoniotaireSolution25 mg/1mLOphthalmicAltaire Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-01-18Not applicableUS flag
Mc Methylcellulose Solution 1%Solution1 g / 100 mLRectalE Z Em, Inc.1982-12-312009-08-04Canada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AQUA TEAR EYE DROPSSolution / drops3 mg/1mlOphthalmicบริษัท แม็กซิมอินเตอร์คอร์ปอร์เรชั่น จำกัด จำกัด2019-09-04Not applicableThailand flag
Artelac Lubricant Eye DropsSolution0.32 %OphthalmicBausch & Lomb Inc2005-03-252008-07-28Canada flag
Corneo HypromelloseSolution0.3 %OphthalmicOrimed Pharma Corporation2015-09-16Not applicableCanada flag
EYE GLO MOIST EYE DROPSSolution / dropsOphthalmicDuopharma Marketing Sdn. Bhd.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
GentealSolution3 mg / mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1997-10-17Not applicableCanada flag
GENTEALSolution / drops3 mg/1mlOphthalmicบริษัท อัลคอน แลบอราทอรีส์ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด2018-09-27Not applicableThailand flag
Genteal GelGel0.3 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.2002-10-232016-05-30Canada flag
GENTEAL GELGel3 mg/gOphthalmicบริษัท อัลคอน แลบอราทอรีส์ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด2018-09-07Not applicableThailand flag
GenTeal MildLiquid200 mg/1LOphthalmicNovartis Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-09-14Not applicableUS flag
GenTeal Mild to ModerateLiquid300 mg/1LOphthalmicNovartis Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-09-142017-10-31US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Advanced Eye Relief/ Redness Maximum ReliefHypromellose (5 mg/1mL) + Naphazoline hydrochloride (0.3 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated2010-09-02Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Eye Relief/ Redness Maximum ReliefHypromellose (5 mg/1mL) + Naphazoline hydrochloride (0.3 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-09-02Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (0.2 % w/v) + Glycerin (0.2 % w/v)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2011-04-19Not applicableCanada flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (0.002 mg/1mg) + Glycerin (0.002 mg/1mg) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (0.01 mg/1mg)Solution / dropsOphthalmicGeri-Care Pharmaceuticals, Corp2018-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (0.002 mg/1mg) + Glycerin (0.002 mg/1mg) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (0.01 mg/1mg)Solution / dropsOphthalmicPreferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.2021-03-11Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (2 mg/1mL) + Glycerin (2 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicAmerican Sales Company2010-09-06Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (0.3 %) + Dextran (0.1 %)SolutionOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.2005-03-162009-02-24Canada flag
Artificial TearsHypromellose (0.002 mg/1mg) + Glycerin (0.002 mg/1mg) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (0.01 mg/1mg)Solution / dropsOphthalmicNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2018-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Bion TearsHypromellose 2910 (4000 mPa.S) (3 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.1992-10-19Not applicableUS flag
Bion Tears - Liq OphHypromellose (0.3 %) + Dextran 70 (0.1 %)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1996-10-282016-10-20Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
EntrocelHypromellose (18 mg/1mL)SolutionOralMallinckrodt2009-06-012012-10-31US flag
Gonak HypromelloseHypromellose 2906 (4000 mPa.S) (25 mg/1mL) + Hypromellose 2906 (50 mPa.S) (25 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.1997-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Gonak HypromelloseHypromellose 2906 (4000 mPa.S) (25 mg/1mL) + Hypromellose 2906 (50 mPa.S) (25 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.1997-01-01Not applicableUS flag
GoniosoftHypromellose (25 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicOCuSOFT, INC.1989-10-02Not applicableUS flag
GoniotaireHypromellose 2906 (4000 mPa.S) (25 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicAltaire Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-01-18Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01KA02 — Hypromellose
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3NXW29V3WO
CAS number
9004-65-3

References

General References
  1. Li CL, Martini LG, Ford JL, Roberts M: The use of hypromellose in oral drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):533-46. [Article]
  2. Al-Tabakha MM: HPMC capsules: current status and future prospects. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;13(3):428-42. [Article]
  3. BION TEARS [Link]
  4. Hypromellose [Link]
  5. MIMS Hypromellose [Link]
  6. SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS [Link]
  7. SUMMARY PRODUCT ASSESSMENT [Link]
  8. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [Link]
  9. DailyMed: Genteal Mild Eye Drops (hypromellose 0.2%) [Link]
PubChem Substance
347911105
RxNav
1363586
Wikipedia
Hypromellose
AHFS Codes
  • 52:13.00* — Artificial Tears
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
  • 36:89.00* — Other Diagnostics
MSDS
Download (229 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionChronic Allergic Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedPreventionSeasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis allergic / Seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis1
4CompletedTreatmentCorneal Edema / Intraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentCorneal Epithelium Defect1
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eyes1
4CompletedTreatmentEndocrine ophthalmopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension4

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic3.2 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic0.32 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic1.92 mg/0/6mL
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic23 mg
LiquidOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.3 %
SolutionOral18 mg/1mL
GelOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic3 mg / mL
Solution, gel forming / dropsConjunctival3 mg
GelOphthalmic0.3 %
GelOphthalmic3 mg/g
LiquidOphthalmic200 mg/1L
LiquidOphthalmic300 mg/1L
GelOphthalmic.003 g/1g
LiquidOphthalmic25 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic25 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic25 mg/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic3 mg/10mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic3 mg
SolutionOphthalmic3 mg
SolutionRectal1 g / 100 mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic4 mg/1mL
Kit; solutionIntraocular; Irrigation
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic20 mg
SolutionOphthalmic3 mg / g
SolutionOphthalmic; Topical3 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic0.02 g
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical3 mg/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic3.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg / mL
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic0.32 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic3 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3 mg/1ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.2 g/100mL
SolutionOphthalmic; Topical
GelOphthalmic3 mg/1g
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Solution / dropsOphthalmic17 mg/1mL
GelOphthalmic0.3 g/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic3 mg/1ml
LiquidOphthalmic5 mg/1ml
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySoluble https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/usp/1330005?lang=en®ion=CA
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
May act as a physical homophilic interaction molecule between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) at the mucosal epithelium for providing immunological barrier...
Gene Name
EPCAM
Uniprot ID
P16422
Uniprot Name
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule
Molecular Weight
34932.005 Da
References
  1. Geerling G, Daniels JT, Dart JK, Cree IA, Khaw PT: Toxicity of natural tear substitutes in a fully defined culture model of human corneal epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Apr;42(5):948-56. [Article]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on June 12, 2021 01:53