Sodium hydroxide

Identification

Name
Sodium hydroxide
Accession Number
DB11151
Description

Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye or soda , or caustic soda 6.

At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. It is a synthetically manufactured substance. When dissolved in water or neutralized with acid it releases substantial amounts of heat, which may prove sufficient to ignite combustible materials. Sodium hydroxide is highly corrosive 2.

Sodium hydroxide is generally used as a solid or a diluted in a 50% solution. This chemical is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, paper, explosives, dyestuffs, and petroleum products 2.

It is also used in processing cotton fabric, laundering and bleaching, metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, and electrolytic extracting. It is commonly found in commercial drain/ oven cleaners 2. According to the the FDA, sodium hydroxide is considered a direct food recognized as safe, where it serves as a pH control agent and follows good manufacturing guidelines 3.

Interestingly, sodium hydroxide has been studied for its use in the treatment of prion disease (as occurs in mad cow disease and kuru). The use of this compound has been shown to effectively reduce prion levels in an in vitro inactivation assay 1.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 39.9971
Monoisotopic: 39.992509329
Chemical Formula
HNaO
Synonyms
  • caustic soda
  • lye
  • soda lye
  • sodio hidróxido
  • sodium hydrate
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • white caustic
External IDs
  • E-524
  • INS-524
  • NSC-135799

Pharmacology

Pharmacology
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Indication

Used to destroy or kill the nail matrix (matrixectomies) 4.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Sodium Hydroxide 10% forms a strongly alkaline and caustic solution. As a caustic agent, it is used to destroy organic tissue by chemical action 4.

Mechanism of action

Because of its high-level alkalinity, sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution directly causes bond breakage in proteins (especially disulfide bridges). Hair and fingernails are found to be dissolved after 20 hours of direct contact with sodium hydroxide at pH values higher than 9.2 8.

Sodium hydroxide has depilatory effects which have been described after accidental contact with solutions in the workplace. The breakage of bonds in proteins may lead to severe necrosis to the application site. The level of corrosion depends on the period of contact with the tissue, and on the concentration of sodium hydroxide 8.

Absorption

There are no quantitative data for the absorption of sodium hydroxide through the skin. Solutions which contain 50 % sodium hydroxide have been shown to be corrosive and lethal when applied dermally to mice 9.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Human poisoning cases indicate that a dose of 10 grams orally is fatal 5. Sodium hydroxide is toxic by oral ingestion 2.

Sodium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues. Concentrated vapors lead to serious damage to the eyes and respiratory system. Oral ingestion of sodium hydroxide, which occurs frequently in children, causes severe tissue necrosis, with stricture formation of the esophagus, often resulting in death. Contact with the skin may result in contact dermatitis, hair loss, as well as necrosis due to severe irritation 7.

Increased incidence of esophageal carcinoma after severe intoxication with sodium hydroxide has been reported in man. In animal studies, long-term dermal contact with substances leading to pH changes in the skin causes the development of tumors, as a result of severe tissue irritation and reparative cell growth 9.

Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. May cause damage to the following organs: mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes MSDS. Tumors are not to be expected if the effects of irritation are prevented 9.

To date, there are no relevant studies of the prenatal toxic effects of sodium hydroxide 9.

Affected organisms
  • Humans
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Sodium HydroxideLiquid.01 g/1gTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-16Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Aminoplasmal B. Braun 10%E Solution for Intravenous InfusionSodium hydroxide (0.36 g/1000ml) + Alanine (10.5 g/1000ml) + Arginine (11.5 g/1000ml) + Aspartic acid (5.6 g/1000ml) + Glutamic acid (7.2 g/1000ml) + Glycine (12 g/1000ml) + Histidine (3 g/1000ml) + Isoleucine (5 g/1000ml) + Leucine (8.9 g/1000ml) + Lysine hydrochloride (8.56 g/1000ml) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.508 g/1000ml) + Methionine (4.4 g/1000ml) + Phenylalanine (4.7 g/1000ml) + Potassium acetate (2.453 g/1000ml) + Proline (5.5 g/1000ml) + Serine (2.3 g/1000ml) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.858 g/1000ml) + Sodium phosphate, dibasic dodecahydrate (3.581 g/1000ml) + Threonine (4.2 g/1000ml) + Tryptophan (1.6 g/1000ml) + Tyrosine (0.4 g/1000ml) + Valine (6.2 g/1000ml)Injection, solutionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDICAL INDUSTRIES SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Antibacterial Hand SanitizerSodium hydroxide (0.03 1/1001) + Pyrithione zinc (0.15 1/1001) + Sodium chloride (0.8 1/1001)LiquidTopicalSHANTOU WBM TRADING CO., LTD.2020-03-19Not applicableUS flag
Antibacterial Hand SanitizerSodium hydroxide (0.03 1/1001) + Pyrithione zinc (0.15 1/1001) + Sodium chloride (0.8 1/1001)LiquidTopicalSHANTOU WBM TRADING CO., LTD.2020-03-19Not applicableUS flag
NUTRIFLEX ® LIPID PERISodium hydroxide (0.64 mg) + Alanine (3.88 mg) + Arginine (2.16 mg) + Aspartic acid (1.2 mg) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.353 mg) + D-glucose monohydrate (64 mg) + Glutamic acid (2.8 mg) + Glycine (1.32 mg) + Histidine (1 mg) + Isoleucine (1.872 mg) + Leucine (2.504 mg) + Lysine hydrochloride (1.816 mg) + Magnesium acetate (0.515 mg) + Medium-chain triglycerides (20 mg) + Phenylalanine (2.808 mg) + Potassium acetate (2.354 mg) + Proline (2.72 mg) + Racemethionine (1.568 mg) + Serine (2.4 mg) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.435 mg) + Sodium chloride (0.865 mg) + Sodium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (0.936 mg) + Soybean oil (20 mg) + Threonine (1.456 mg) + Tryptophan (0.456 mg) + Valine (2.08 mg) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (0.00528 mg)EmulsionIntravenous2010-08-06Not applicableColombia flag
NUTRIFLEX ®OMEGA SPECIALSodium hydroxide (1.171 g) + Alanine (6.792 g) + Arginine (3.78 g) + Aspartic acid (2.1 g) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.623 g) + D-glucose monohydrate (144 g) + Glutamic acid (4.908 g) + Glycine (2.312 g) + Histidine (1.75 g) + Isoleucine (3.284 g) + Leucine (4.384 g) + Lysine (3.184 g) + Magnesium acetate (0.91 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (20 g) + Omega-3 fatty acids (4 g) + Phenylalanine (4.916 g) + Potassium acetate (3.689 g) + Proline (4.76 g) + Racemethionine (2.736 g) + Serine (4.2 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.25 g) + Sodium chloride (0.378 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (2.496 g) + Soybean oil (16 g) + Threonine (2.54 g) + Tryptophan (0.8 g) + Valine (3.604 g) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (7.024 mg)EmulsionIntravenous2011-07-07Not applicableColombia flag
NUTRIFLEX LIPID PERI INFUZYONLUK IV EMULSIYON, 1250 MLSodium hydroxide (0.8 g) + Alanine (4.85 g) + Arginine (2.7 g) + Aspartic acid (1.5 g) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.441 g) + D-glucose monohydrate (88 g) + Glutamic acid (3.5 g) + Glycine (1.65 g) + Histidine (1.25 g) + Isoleucine (2.34 g) + Leucine (3.13 g) + Lysine hydrochloride (2.84 g) + Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (0.644 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (25 g) + Methionine (1.96 g) + Phenylalanine (3.51 g) + Potassium acetate (2.943 g) + Proline (3.4 g) + Serine (3 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.544 g) + Sodium chloride (1.081 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (1.17 g) + Soybean oil (25 g) + Threonine (1.82 g) + Tryptophan (0.57 g) + Valine (2.6 g) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (6.625 mg)EmulsionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDİKAL DIŞ TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142018-10-12Turkey flag
NUTRIFLEX LIPID PERI INFUZYONLUK IV EMULSIYON, 1870 MLSodium hydroxide (1.2 g) + Acetate (60 mmol) + Alanine (7.28 g) + Arginine (4.05 g) + Aspartic acid (2.25 g) + Calcium (4.5 mmol) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.662 g) + Chlorine (72 mmol) + D-glucose (120 g) + Glutamic acid (5.25 g) + Glycine (2.48 g) + Histidine (1.88 g) + Isoleucine (3.51 g) + Leucine (4.7 g) + Lysine (3.39 g) + Magnesium (4.5 mmol) + Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (0.966 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (37.5 g) + Methionine (2.94 g) + Phenylalanine (5.27 g) + Potassium (45 mmol) + Potassium acetate (4.415 g) + Proline (5.1 g) + Serine (4.5 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.816 g) + Sodium cation (75 mmol) + Sodium chloride (1.622 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (1.755 g) + Soybean oil (37.5 g) + Threonine (2.73 g) + Tryptophan (0.86 g) + Valine (3.9 g) + Zinc (0.045 mmol) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (9.938 mg)Injection, emulsionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDİKAL DIŞ TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142018-10-12Turkey flag
NUTRIFLEX LIPID PERI INFUZYONLUK IV EMULSIYON, 2500 MLSodium hydroxide (1.6 g) + Acetate (80 mmol) + Alanine (9.7 g) + Arginine (5.4 g) + Aspartic acid (3 g) + Calcium (6 mmol) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.882 g) + Chlorine (96 mmol) + D-glucose (160 g) + Glutamic acid (7 g) + Glycine (3.3 g) + Histidine (2.5 g) + Isoleucine (4.68 g) + Leucine (6.26 g) + Lysine (4.52 g) + Magnesium (6 mmol) + Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (1.288 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (50 g) + Methionine (3.92 g) + Phenylalanine (7.02 g) + Potassium (60 mmol) + Potassium acetate (5.886 g) + Proline (6.8 g) + Serine (6 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (1.088 g) + Sodium cation (100 mmol) + Sodium chloride (2.162 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (2.34 g) + Soybean oil (50 g) + Threonine (3.64 g) + Tryptophan (1.14 g) + Valine (5.2 g) + Zinc (0.06 mmol) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (13.25 mg)Injection, emulsionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDİKAL DIŞ TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142018-10-12Turkey flag
NUTRIFLEX LIPID PLUS INFUZYONLUK EMULSIYON, 1250 MLSodium hydroxide (0.976 g) + Acetate (45 mmol) + Alanine (5.82 g) + Arginine (3.24 g) + Aspartic acid (1.8 g) + Calcium (4 mmol) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.588 g) + Chlorine (45 mmol) + D-glucose (150 g) + Glutamic acid (4.21 g) + Glycine (1.98 g) + Histidine (1.5 g) + Isoleucine (2.82 g) + Leucine (3.76 g) + Lysine (2.73 g) + Magnesium (4 mmol) + Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (0.858 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (25 g) + Methionine (2.35 g) + Phenylalanine (4.21 g) + Phosphate ion (15 mmol) + Potassium (35 mmol) + Potassium acetate (3.434 g) + Proline (4.08 g) + Serine (3.6 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.277 g) + Sodium cation (50 mmol) + Sodium chloride (0.503 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (2.34 g) + Soybean oil (25 g) + Threonine (2.18 g) + Tryptophan (0.68 g) + Valine (3.12 g) + Zinc (0.03 mmol) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (6.58 mg)Injection, emulsionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDİKAL DIŞ TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142018-10-03Turkey flag
NUTRIFLEX LIPID PLUS INFUZYONLUK EMULSIYON, 1870 MLSodium hydroxide (1.464 g) + Acetate (67.5 mmol) + Alanine (8.73 g) + Arginine (4.86 g) + Aspartic acid (2.7 g) + Calcium (6 mmol) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.882 g) + Chlorine (67.5 mmol) + D-glucose (225 g) + Glutamic acid (6.32 g) + Glycine (2.97 g) + Histidine (2.25 g) + Isoleucine (4.23 g) + Leucine (5.64 g) + Lysine (4.1 g) + Magnesium (6 mmol) + Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (1.287 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (37.5 g) + Methionine (3.53 g) + Phenylalanine (6.32 g) + Phosphate ion (22.5 mmol) + Potassium (52.5 mmol) + Potassium acetate (5.151 g) + Proline (6.12 g) + Serine (5.4 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.416 g) + Sodium cation (75 mmol) + Sodium chloride (0.755 g) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, dihydrate (3.51 g) + Soybean oil (37.5 g) + Threonine (3.27 g) + Tryptophan (1.02 g) + Valine (4.68 g) + Zinc (0.045 mmol) + Zinc acetate dihydrate (9.87 mg)Injection, emulsionIntravenousB.BRAUN MEDİKAL DIŞ TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142018-10-03Turkey flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Sodium HydroxideSodium hydroxide (.01 g/1g)LiquidTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-16Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Alkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Alkali metal hydroxides
Direct Parent
Alkali metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic sodium salts / Inorganic oxides / Inorganic hydrides
Substituents
Alkali metal hydroxide / Inorganic hydride / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt / Inorganic sodium salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
alkali metal hydroxide (CHEBI:32145)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
55X04QC32I
CAS number
1310-73-2
InChI Key
HEMHJVSKTPXQMS-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/Na.H2O/h;1H2/q+1;/p-1
IUPAC Name
sodium hydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[Na+]

References

General References
  1. Bauman PA, Lawrence LA, Biesert L, Dichtelmuller H, Fabbrizzi F, Gajardo R, Groner A, Jorquera JI, Kempf C, Kreil TR, von Hoegen I, Pifat DY, Petteway SR Jr, Cai K: Critical factors influencing prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide. Vox Sang. 2006 Jul;91(1):34-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1423-0410.2006.00790.x. [PubMed:16756599]
  2. Sodium Hydroxide, PubChem [Link]
  3. FDA document, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  4. Sodium Hydroxide Solution [Link]
  5. EPA, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  6. Chemical Safety Facts, Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  7. SODIUM HYDROXIDE [Link]
  8. Sodium Hydroxide [Link]
  9. Chlorine and sodium hydroxide [Link]
KEGG Compound
C12569
PubChem Compound
14798
PubChem Substance
347827921
ChemSpider
14114
RxNav
9880
ChEBI
32145
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2105794
Wikipedia
Sodium_hydroxide
MSDS
Download (50.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentEndocrine ophthalmopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Psoriasis1
3CompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Nutrition for Patients With Proven Insufficient Enteral Resorption1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidTopical
SolutionExtracorporeal
EmulsionParenteral
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionParenteral
Injection, solution
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
LiquidTopical.01 g/1g
SolutionOphthalmic
Suspension
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)323MSDS
boiling point (°C)1388MSDS
water solubilityeasily soluble in cold water, hot waterMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:52