Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

Article Details


Chang F, Jaber LA, Berlie HD, O'Connell MB

Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Jun;41(6):973-83. Epub 2007 May 22.

PubMed ID
17519293 [ View in PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists from single site to multiple subtype or partial agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Information was obtained from MEDLINE (1966-March 2007) using search terms peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist, PPAR dual agonist, PPAR alpha/gamma agonist, PPAR pan agonist, partial PPAR, and the specific compound names. Other sources included pharmaceutical companies, the Internet, and the American Diabetes Association 64th-66th Scientific Sessions abstract books. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Animal data, abstracts, clinical trials, and review articles were reviewed and summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS: PPAR alpha, gamma, and delta receptors play an important role in lipid metabolism, regulation of adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, and insulin sensitivity. The PPAR dual agonists were developed to combine the triglyceride lowering and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol elevation from the PPAR-alpha agonists (fibrates) with the insulin sensitivity improvement from the PPAR-gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones). Although the dual agonists reduced hemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) and improved the lipid profile, adverse effects led to discontinued development. Currently, PPAR-delta agonists (GW501516 in Phase I trials), partial PPAR-gamma agonists (metaglidasen in Phase II and III trials), and pan agonists (alpha, gamma, delta; netoglitazone in Phase II and III trials) with improved cell and tissue selectivity are undergoing investigation to address multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome with a single medication. By decreasing both A1C and triglycerides, metaglidasen did improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse effects than compared with placebo. Metaglidasen is now being compared with pioglitazone. CONCLUSIONS: Influencing the various PPARs results in improved glucose, lipid, and weight management, with effects dependent on full or partial agonist activity at single or multiple receptors. Although the dual PPAR compounds have been associated with unacceptable toxicities, new PPAR agonist medications continue to be developed and investigated to discover a safe drug with benefits in multiple disease states.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Targets
DrugTargetKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
ArhalofenatePeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaProteinHumans
Not AvailableDetails