Genotype-epigenotype-phenotype correlations in females with frontometaphyseal dysplasia.

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Zenker M, Nahrlich L, Sticht H, Reis A, Horn D

Genotype-epigenotype-phenotype correlations in females with frontometaphyseal dysplasia.

Am J Med Genet A. 2006 May 15;140(10):1069-73.

PubMed ID
16596676 [ View in PubMed

Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) belongs to a group of overlapping skeletal dysplasias, the common molecular basis of which are mutations of FLNA, the gene encoding filamin A. The nature of the mutation has been considered the major determinant of the phenotype within this group that comprises the otopalatodigital syndromes (OPD1, OPD2) and Melnick-Needles syndrome besides FMD. However, to date the molecular pathomechanisms are not well understood. In FMD only few FLNA mutations have been reported which do not cluster in a specific region of the protein. We report on a novel de novo mutation 5182G --> T in exon 31 of the FLNA gene in a girl with manifestations of FMD and OPD1. This mutation is predicted to lead to the exchange of a highly conserved glycine residue at position 1,728 by cysteine (G1728C) in repeat 15 of the filamin A rod domain. In a second family with FMD, we identified a known mutation (S1186L) in a mother and her son. In contrast to most previous reports on manifesting females or carriers of the FLNA-related skeletal dysplasias, the affected females presented here showed only mild to moderate skewing of X-inactivation against the mutant allele. Our data may indicate that in females, genotype-phenotype correlation between certain FLNA mutations and OPD1 and FMD, respectively, is less strict than previously assumed. We propose that X-inactivation is an important epigenetic modifier of the phenotype in females with the FLNA-related skeletal dysplasias.

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