In vitro interactions between apricitabine and other deoxycytidine analogues.

Article Details


Bethell R, De Muys J, Lippens J, Richard A, Hamelin B, Ren C, Collins P

In vitro interactions between apricitabine and other deoxycytidine analogues.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Aug;51(8):2948-53. Epub 2007 May 21.

PubMed ID
17517847 [ View in PubMed

Apricitabine is a novel deoxycytidine analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Apricitabine is phosphorylated to its active triphosphate by deoxycytidine kinase, which is also responsible for the intracellular phosphorylation of lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC); hence, in vitro studies were performed to investigate possible interactions between apricitabine and these agents. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of (3)H-labeled or unlabeled apricitabine, 3TC, or FTC. Intracellular concentrations of parent compounds and their phosphorylated derivatives were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. In other experiments, viral reverse transcriptase activity was measured in PBMC infected with HIV-1 bearing M184V in the presence of various concentrations of apricitabine and 3TC. [(3)H]apricitabine and [(3)H]3TC were metabolized intracellularly to form mono-, di-, and triphosphates. 3TC and FTC (1 to 10 microM) produced concentration-dependent decreases in apricitabine phosphorylation; in contrast, apricitabine at concentrations of up to 30 muM had no effect on the phosphorylation of 3TC or FTC. The combination of apricitabine and 3TC reduced the antiviral activity of apricitabine against HIV-1: apricitabine concentrations producing 50% inhibition of viral reverse transcriptase were increased two- to fivefold in the presence of 3TC. These findings suggest that nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with similar modes of action may show biochemical interactions that affect their antiviral efficacy. It is therefore essential that potential interactions between combinations of new and existing agents be thoroughly investigated before such combinations are introduced into clinical practice.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Enzymes
DrugEnzymeKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
EmtricitabineDeoxycytidine kinaseProteinHumans