Enalapril: a review of human pharmacology.

Article Details


Gomez HJ, Cirillo VJ, Irvin JD

Enalapril: a review of human pharmacology.

Drugs. 1985;30 Suppl 1:13-24. doi: 10.2165/00003495-198500301-00004.

PubMed ID
2994984 [ View in PubMed

Enalapril, an orally-active, long-acting, nonsulphydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is extensively hydrolysed in vivo to enalaprilat, its bioactive form. Bioactivation probably occurs in the liver. Metabolism beyond activation to enalaprilat is not observed in man. Administration with food does not affect the bioavailability of enalapril; excretion of enalapril and enalaprilat is primarily renal. Peak serum enalaprilat concentrations are reached 4 hours post-dose, and the profile is polyphasic with a prolonged terminal half-life (greater than 30 hours) due to the binding of enalaprilat to ACE. Steady-state is achieved by the fourth daily dose, with no evidence of accumulation. The effective accumulation half-life following multiple dosing is 11 hours. Higher serum concentrations and delayed urinary excretion occur in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Enalapril reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients by decreasing systemic vascular resistance. The blood pressure reduction is not accompanied by an increase in heart rate. Furthermore, cardiac output is slightly increased and cardiovascular reflexes are not impaired. Once- and twice-daily dosage regimens reduce blood pressure to a similar extent. Enalapril increases renal blood flow and decreases renal vascular resistance. Enalapril also augments the glomerular filtration rate in patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 80 ml/min. Enalapril reduces left ventricular mass, and does not affect cardiac function or myocardial perfusion during exercise. There is no rebound hypertension after enalapril therapy is stopped. Enalapril does not produce hypokalaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperuricaemia or hypercholesterolaemia. When combined with hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril attenuates the undesirable diuretic-induced metabolic changes. Therapeutic doses of enalapril do not affect serum prolactin and plasma cortisol in healthy volunteers or T3, rT3, T4 and TSH in hypertensive patients. Enalapril has natriuretic and uricosuric properties. The antihypertensive effect of enalapril is potentiated by hydrochlorothiazide, timolol and methyldopa, but unaffected by indomethacin and sulindac. No interactions occur between enalapril and frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin and warfarin. The bioavailability of enalapril is slightly reduced when propranolol is coadministered, but this does not appear to be of any clinical significance. Enalapril increases cardiac output and stroke volume and decreases pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in patients with congestive heart failure refractory to conventional treatment with digitalis and diuretics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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