Mecasermin rinfabate: insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, mecaserimin rinfibate, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3.

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Mecasermin rinfabate: insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, mecaserimin rinfibate, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3.

Drugs R D. 2005;6(2):120-7.

PubMed ID
15777106 [ View in PubMed

Insmed is developing mecasermin rinfabate, a recombinant complex of insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) and binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3) [insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, SomatoKine], for a number of metabolic and endocrine indications. In the human body, IGF-I circulates in the blood bound to a binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which regulates the delivery of IGF-I to target tissues, and particular proteases clip them apart in response to stresses and release IGF-I as needed. IGF-I, a naturally occurring hormone, is necessary for normal growth and metabolism. For the treatment of IGF-I deficiency, it is desirable to administer IGF-I bound to IGFBP-3 to maintain the normal equilibrium of these proteins in the blood. Mecasermin rinfabate (rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3) mimics the effects of the natural protein complex in the bloodstream and would augment the natural supply of these linked compounds. The most advanced indication in development of mecasermin rinfabate is the treatment of severe growth disorders due to growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), also called Laron syndrome. GHIS is a genetic condition in which patients do not produce adequate quantities of IGF because of a failure to respond to the growth hormone signal. This results in a slower growth rate and short stature. Mecasermin rinfabate also has potential as replacement therapy for IGF-I, which may become depleted in indications such as major surgery, organ damage/failure, traumatic injury, cachexia and severe burn trauma. It also has potential for the treatment of osteoporosis. Mecasermin rinfabate was developed by Celtrix using its proprietary recombinant protein production technology. Subsequently, Celtrix was acquired by Insmed Pharmaceuticals on 1 June 2000. Insmed and Avecia of the UK have signed an agreement for manufacturing mecasermin rinfabate and its components, rhIGF-1 and rhIGFBP-3. CGMP clinical production of mecasermin rinfabate and its components will be carried out in Avecia's Advanced Biologics Centre, Billingham, UK, which manufactures recombinant-based medicines and vaccines at the capacity of up to 1000L. In April 2004, Insmed announced that it acquired a lease to operate the manufacturing facility formerly operated by Baxter for the commercial production of SomatoKine in Boulder, CO, USA. With the two manufacturing facilities for SomatoKine, Insmed plans to meet the development and commercial demands for the product over the next several years. In its 2003 Form-10K, Insmed announced plans to conduct comparative studies with the previously used drug substance and the new substance produced by Avecia. The comparative data will be included in the regulatory filing for mecasermin rinfabate. Mecasermin rinfabate was originally licensed to Welfide for Japan. On 1 October 2001, Welfide Corporation merged with Mitsubishi-Tokyo Pharmaceuticals to form Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation. The new company is a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical. In October 2004, Insmed announced that Tzamal Pharma has been granted exclusive distribution and marketing rights for mecasermin rinfabate in certain Middle Eastern territories including Israel. Tzamal Pharma also acquired exclusive rights to Insmed's named patient programme for the agent in these territories. Tzamal Pharma intends to begin the appropriate registration activities for mecasermin rinfabate in the treatment of children with growth hormone-insensitivity syndrome. This pivotal, 12-month, multicentre, open-label trial in 30 children with GHIS was initiated in June 2003 and was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the agent in prepubescent children with GHIS. The 6-month endpoint data analysis showed that mecasermin rinfabate given as a once-daily injection was safe and well tolerated. The agent demonstrated a significant increase in height velocity in children with GHIS similar to that observed by Pfizer in their pivotal study with twice-daily injections of rhIGF-I. The full results from the pivotal trial are expected in 2005. In April 2003 Insmed initiated a named patient programme in Europe that will make available mecasermin rinfabate for the treatment of GHIS-Laron syndrome. The treatment of patients was initiated in Scandinavia, with authorisation pending in several other European countries. Mecasermin rinfabate will be made available to those GHIS patients who, in the opinion of their doctor, may benefit from IGF-I therapy. At precommercial scale quantities, the drug will be available on a limited basis.A phase II dose-ranging study in children with GHIS was completed at Saint Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine, London, UK. A single dose of mecasermin rinfabate delivered the same amount of IGF-1 as two daily injections of unbound IGF-1. No adverse events were reported. Insmed has acquired an exclusive licence to Pharmacia's regulatory filings concerning yeast-derived insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). These filings were used by Pharmacia to receive marketing approvals in several European countries and also in the IND application with the US FDA. Insmed believes that this licence will facilitate the development of mecasermin rinfabate for the treatment of children with GHIS. In January 2003, Insmed announced positive results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of mecasermin rinfabate in adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes receiving insulin therapy. The study was conducted at the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, under supervision of Prof. D. Dunger. The researchers from The Robarts Research Institute and the University of Western Ontario, Canada (leading investigator T.L. Delovitch, the Sheldon H. Weinstein scientist in Diabetes at the University of Western Ontario) have found that mecasermin rinfabate complex was significantly more effective than IGF-1 in reducing the severity of insulitis, beta cell destruction and delaying the onset of type 1 diabetes. The study was supported by grants from Canadian Institutes of Health and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Insmed plans to initiate large-scale phase II clinical studies in this indication. At the BIO 2004 Annual International Convention (BIO-2004) in June 2004, Insmed announced that it has received a grant from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH)/Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) worth USD $6.5 million to investigate the efficacy of mecasermin rinfabate for the treatment of myotonic dystrophy. It has also been granted orphan drug status for the treatment of GHIS-Laron syndrome in the US and Europe. In December 2003, Insmed announced that mecasermin rinfabate was designated orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of extreme insulin resistance. This provides Insmed with 7 years of market exclusivity following approval of mecasermin rinfabate for this indication. Insmed has received orphan drug designation for mecasermin rinfabate in the treatment of extreme insulin resistance in Europe (October 2004). In November 2004, Insmed was granted the European patent EP1183042 entitled "Methods for Treating Diabetes". This patent corresponds with the US patent US 6,040,292 also entitled "Methods for Treating Diabetes". Both patents cover type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistant diabetes including type A insulin resistance (the least severe form of extreme insulin resistance syndromes). In January 2004, Insmed obtained a non-exclusive licence to the patents for use of IGF-I for the treatment of extreme or severe insulin-resistant diabetes from Fujisawa Pharmaceutical. Insmed will have worldwide rights in territories (excluding Japan) with existing valid patent claims including the US and Europe. Insmed holds 28 US issued or allowed patents for the composition, production, antibodies and methods of use of mecasermin rinfabate. These US patents expire at various times between the years 2010 and 2019. Insmed through their lawyers filed its defense and counterclaim to the alleged patent infringement brought by Tercica against Insmed in the London High Court of Justice. Insmed asserted that it did not infringe any valid patent claims as none of the claims of the patent were patentable because the subject matter was not new. Insmed also stated that the patent did not involve an inventive step, did not have capability of industrial application and had no clear description of the invention so that invention can be performed by the person skilled in the art. Insmed is seeking revocation of the patent on these grounds.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Targets
DrugTargetKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3ProteinHumans
Not AvailableDetails