Functional and structural basis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A deficiency.

Article Details


Gobin S, Thuillier L, Jogl G, Faye A, Tong L, Chi M, Bonnefont JP, Girard J, Prip-Buus C

Functional and structural basis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A deficiency.

J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 12;278(50):50428-34. Epub 2003 Sep 29.

PubMed ID
14517221 [ View in PubMed

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) is the key regulatory enzyme of hepatic long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. Human CPT1A deficiency is characterized by recurrent attacks of hypoketotic hypoglycemia. We presently analyzed at both the functional and structural levels five missense mutations identified in three CPT1A-deficient patients, namely A275T, A414V, Y498C, G709E, and G710E. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae permitted to validate them as disease-causing mutations. To gain further insights into their deleterious effects, we localized these mutated residues into a three-dimensional structure model of the human CPT1A created from the crystal structure of the mouse carnitine acetyltransferase. This study demonstrated for the first time that disease-causing CPT1A mutations can be divided into two categories depending on whether they affect directly (functional determinant) or indirectly the active site of the enzyme (structural determinant). Mutations A275T, A414V, and Y498C, which exhibit decreased catalytic efficiency, clearly belong to the second class. They are located more than 20 A away from the active site and mostly affect the stability of the protein itself and/or of the enzyme-substrate complex. By contrast, mutations G709E and G710E, which abolish CPT1A activity, belong to the first category. They affect Gly residues that are essential not only for the structure of the hydrophobic core in the catalytic site, but also for the chain-length specificity of CPT isoforms. This study provides novel insights into the functionality of CPT1A that may contribute to the design of drugs for the treatment of lipid disorders.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, liver isoformP50416Details