Refined structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli at 2.8 A resolution.

Article Details


Sowadski JM, Handschumacher MD, Murthy HM, Foster BA, Wyckoff HW

Refined structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli at 2.8 A resolution.

J Mol Biol. 1985 Nov 20;186(2):417-33.

PubMed ID
3910843 [ View in PubMed

The structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli has been determined to 2.8 A resolution. The multiple isomorphous replacement electron density map of the dimer at 3.4 A was substantially improved by molecular symmetry averaging and solvent flattening. From these maps, polypeptide chains of the dimer were built using the published amino acid sequence. Stereochemically restrained least-squares refinement of this model against native data, starting with 3.4 A data and extending in steps to 2.8 A resolution, proceeded to a final overall crystallographic R factor of 0.256. Alkaline phosphatase-phosphomonoester hydrolase (EC is a metalloenzyme that forms an isologous dimer with two reactive centers 32 A apart. The topology of the polypeptide fold of the subunit is of the alpha/beta class of proteins. Despite the similarities in the overall alpha/beta fold with other proteins, alkaline phosphatase does not have a characteristic binding cleft formed at the carboxyl end of the parallel sheet, but rather an active pocket that contains a cluster of three functional metal sites located off the plane of the central ten-stranded sheet. This active pocket is located near the carboxyl ends of four strands and the amino end of the antiparallel strand, between the plane of the sheet and two helices on the same side. Alkaline phosphatase is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase that hydrolyzes small phosphomonoesters as well as the phosphate termini of DNA. The accessibility calculations based on the refined co-ordinates of the enzyme show that the active pocket barely accommodates inorganic phosphate. Thus, the alcoholic or phenolic portion of the substrate would have to be exposed on the surface of the enzyme. Two metal sites, M1 and M2, 3.9 A apart, are occupied by zinc. The third site, M3, 5 A from site M2 and 7 A from site M1, is occupied by magnesium or, in the absence of magnesium, by zinc. As with other zinc-containing enzymes, histidine residues are ligands to zinc site M1 (three) and to zinc site M2 (one). Ligand assignment and metal preference indicate that the crystallographically found metal sites M1, M2 and M3 correspond to the spectroscopically deduced metal sites A, B and C, respectively. Arsenate, a product analog and enzyme inhibitor, binds between Ser102 and zinc sites M1 and M2. The position of the guanidinium group of Arg 166 is within hydrogen-bonding distance from the arsenate site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

NameUniProt ID
Alkaline phosphataseP00634Details