Identification

Generic Name
XL281
DrugBank Accession Number
DB05190
Background

XL281 is a novel anticancer compound designed to potently inhibit the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Mutational activation of RAS occurs in about 30 percent of all human tumors, including non-small cell lung, pancreatic, and colon cancer. XL281 is a specific inhibitor of RAF kinases, including the mutant form of B-RAF, which is activated in 60 percent of melanomas, 24-44 percent of thyroid cancers, and 9 percent of colon cancers.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in solid tumors.

Pharmacology
Reduce drug development failure rates
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
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Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action

XL281 is a novel small molecule drug designed to specifically inhibit RAF kinases, which lie immediately downstream of RAS and are key components of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK kinase signaling pathway. Genetic lesions that activate this pathway are common in human tumors, with activating mutations in K-Ras occurring in 30 percent of tumors and activating mutations in B-RAF occurring in approximately 60 percent of melanomas. The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway also plays a key role in the transmission of growth-promoting signals downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. This suggests that deregulation of this pathway plays a pivotal role in the progression of many human tumors, and that inhibition of the pathway may provide clinical benefit in the treatment of cancer. In preclinical studies, XL281 showed potent inhibition of B-RAF, mutationally activated B-RAF and C-RAF, and did not interact with kinases outside of the RAF family. XL281 displays high oral bioavailability and strongly inhibits RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling in human tumor models.

TargetActionsOrganism
USerine/threonine-protein kinase B-rafNot AvailableHumans
URAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinaseNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Categories

Drug Categories
Not Available
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
Not Available
CAS number
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
PubChem Substance
347910012

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancer / Malignancies / Malignant Melanoma of Skin / Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Protein kinase involved in the transduction of mitogenic signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. May play a role in the postsynaptic responses of hippocampal neuron. Phosphorylates MAP2K1, a...
Gene Name
BRAF
Uniprot ID
P15056
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf
Molecular Weight
84436.135 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a regulatory link between the membrane-associated Ras GTPases and the MAPK/ERK cascade, and this critical regulatory link functions as a switch determin...
Gene Name
RAF1
Uniprot ID
P04049
Uniprot Name
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase
Molecular Weight
73051.025 Da

Drug created at October 21, 2007 22:24 / Updated at June 12, 2020 16:52