• CSIF
  • Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor
  • IL-10
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
GO Classification
cytokine activity / growth factor activity / interleukin-10 receptor binding
aging / B cell differentiation / B cell proliferation / branching involved in labyrinthine layer morphogenesis / cell-cell signaling / cellular response to estradiol stimulus / cellular response to lipopolysaccharide / cytoplasmic sequestering of NF-kappaB / defense response to bacterium / defense response to protozoan / hemopoiesis / inflammatory response / leukocyte chemotaxis / negative regulation of apoptotic process / negative regulation of B cell proliferation / negative regulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 production / negative regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus / negative regulation of cytokine activity / negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response / negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host / negative regulation of interferon-alpha biosynthetic process / negative regulation of interferon-gamma production / negative regulation of interleukin-1 production / negative regulation of interleukin-12 production / negative regulation of interleukin-18 production / negative regulation of interleukin-6 production / negative regulation of interleukin-8 production / negative regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis / negative regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process / negative regulation of myeloid dendritic cell activation / negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process / negative regulation of T cell proliferation / negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process / negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production / positive regulation of B cell apoptotic process / positive regulation of cytokine secretion / positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade / positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process / positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity / positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter / positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated / receptor biosynthetic process / regulation of gene expression / regulation of isotype switching / regulation of sensory perception of pain / response to activity / response to carbon monoxide / response to drug / response to glucocorticoid / response to inactivity / response to insulin / response to molecule of bacterial origin / type 2 immune response
cytoplasm / extracellular space
General Function
Interleukin-10 receptor binding
Specific Function
Inhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF and GM-CSF produced by activated macrophages and by helper T-cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0019290|Interleukin-10 (IL10)
Chromosome Location
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDP22301
UniProtKB Entry NameIL10_HUMAN
GenBank Gene IDM57627
GenAtlas IDIL10
General References
  1. Vieira P, de Waal-Malefyt R, Dang MN, Johnson KE, Kastelein R, Fiorentino DF, deVries JE, Roncarolo MG, Mosmann TR, Moore KW: Isolation and expression of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor cDNA clones: homology to Epstein-Barr virus open reading frame BCRFI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Feb 15;88(4):1172-6. [Article]
  2. Gesser B, Leffers H, Jinquan T, Vestergaard C, Kirstein N, Sindet-Pedersen S, Jensen SL, Thestrup-Pedersen K, Larsen CG: Identification of functional domains on human interleukin 10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Dec 23;94(26):14620-5. [Article]
  3. Zhang Z, Henzel WJ: Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. Protein Sci. 2004 Oct;13(10):2819-24. Epub 2004 Aug 31. [Article]
  4. Windsor WT, Syto R, Tsarbopoulos A, Zhang R, Durkin J, Baldwin S, Paliwal S, Mui PW, Pramanik B, Trotta PP, et al.: Disulfide bond assignments and secondary structure analysis of human and murine interleukin 10. Biochemistry. 1993 Aug 31;32(34):8807-15. [Article]
  5. Lin MT, Storer B, Martin PJ, Tseng LH, Gooley T, Chen PJ, Hansen JA: Relation of an interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism to graft-versus-host disease and survival after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2003 Dec 4;349(23):2201-10. [Article]
  6. Walter MR, Nagabhushan TL: Crystal structure of interleukin 10 reveals an interferon gamma-like fold. Biochemistry. 1995 Sep 26;34(38):12118-25. [Article]
  7. Zdanov A, Schalk-Hihi C, Gustchina A, Tsang M, Weatherbee J, Wlodawer A: Crystal structure of interleukin-10 reveals the functional dimer with an unexpected topological similarity to interferon gamma. Structure. 1995 Jun 15;3(6):591-601. [Article]
  8. Zdanov A, Schalk-Hihi C, Wlodawer A: Crystal structure of human interleukin-10 at 1.6 A resolution and a model of a complex with its soluble receptor. Protein Sci. 1996 Oct;5(10):1955-62. [Article]
  9. Josephson K, Logsdon NJ, Walter MR: Crystal structure of the IL-10/IL-10R1 complex reveals a shared receptor binding site. Immunity. 2001 Jul;15(1):35-46. [Article]
  10. Yoon SI, Jones BC, Logsdon NJ, Walter MR: Same structure, different function crystal structure of the Epstein-Barr virus IL-10 bound to the soluble IL-10R1 chain. Structure. 2005 Apr;13(4):551-64. [Article]
  11. van der Linde K, Boor PP, Sandkuijl LA, Meijssen MA, Savelkoul HF, Wilson JH, de Rooij FW: A Gly15Arg mutation in the interleukin-10 gene reduces secretion of interleukin-10 in Crohn disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;38(6):611-7. [Article]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails