Methadone inhibits CYP2D6 and UGT2B7/2B4 in vivo: a study using codeine in methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained subjects.

Article Details

Citation

Gelston EA, Coller JK, Lopatko OV, James HM, Schmidt H, White JM, Somogyi AA

Methadone inhibits CYP2D6 and UGT2B7/2B4 in vivo: a study using codeine in methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained subjects.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;73(5):786-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04145.x.

PubMed ID
22092298 [ View in PubMed
]
Abstract

AIMS: To compare the O-demethylation (CYP2D6-mediated), N-demethylation (CYP3A4-mediated) and 6-glucuronidation (UGT2B4/7-mediated) metabolism of codeine between methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS: Ten methadone- and eight buprenorphine-maintained subjects received a single 60 mg dose of codeine phosphate. Blood was collected at 3 h and urine over 6 h and assayed for codeine, norcodeine, morphine, morphine-3- and -6-glucuronides and codeine-6-glucuronide. RESULTS: The urinary metabolic ratio for O-demethylation was significantly higher (P= 0.0044) in the subjects taking methadone (mean +/- SD, 2.8 +/- 3.1) compared with those taking buprenorphine (0.60 +/- 0.43), likewise for 6-glucuronide formation (0.31 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.053 +/- 0.027; P < 0.0002), but there was no significant difference (P= 0.36) in N-demethylation. Similar changes in plasma metabolic ratios were also found. In plasma, compared with those maintained on buprenorphine, the methadone-maintained subjects had increased codeine and norcodeine concentrations (P < 0.004), similar morphine (P= 0.72) and lower morphine-3- and -6- and codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations (P < 0.008). CONCLUSION: Methadone is associated with inhibition of CYP2D6 and UGTs 2B4 and 2B7 reactions in vivo, even though it is not a substrate for these enzymes. Plasma morphine was not altered, owing to the opposing effects of inhibition of both formation and elimination; however, morphine-6-glucuronide (analgesically active) concentrations were substantially reduced. Drug interactions with methadone are likely to include drugs metabolized by various UGTs and CYP2D6.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Drug Enzymes
DrugEnzymeKindOrganismPharmacological ActionActions
CodeineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4ProteinHumans
Unknown
Substrate
Details
MethadoneCytochrome P450 2D6ProteinHumans
Unknown
Substrate
Inhibitor
Details