Macromolecular Substances

Name
Macromolecular Substances
Accession Number
DBCAT000809
Description

Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.

Drugs
DrugDrug Description
Peginterferon alfa-2aA modified form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses.
Peginterferon alfa-2bA purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C, genital warts, and some cancers.
PegaspargaseA modified form of L-asparagine amidohydrolase used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which is dependent on an external source of asparagine.
ColestipolA bile acid sequestrant used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to reduce LDL-C cholesterol levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.
InulinHistorically used in an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Sometimes used to help relieve symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a condition characterised...
IcodextrinAn iso-osmotic solution used for continuous peritoneal dialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis.
Hydroxypropyl celluloseA cellulose ether used to treat dry eyes.
Iron DextranAn iron supplement used to treat iron deficiency in patients who cannot take oral iron.
QuinidineA medication used to restore normal sinus rhythm, treat atrial fibrillation and flutter, and treat ventricular arrhythmias.
PramlintideAn amylin analog used for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to preprandial insulin therapy in patients without adequate glycemic control of insulin therapy.
TolevamerA potassium-binding resin used in the treatment of hyperkalemia.
CholestyramineA bile acid sequestrant used as an adjunct in the reduction of elevated serum cholesterol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, and for the relief of pruritus associated with partial biliary obstruction.
CellobioseA disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose. [PubChem]
MaltotetraoseNot Available
Trehalose-6-PhosphateNot Available
CellotetraoseNot Available
MaltoseA dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FormaldehydeA naturally occurring hazardous organic compound used as a preservative in animal feed, cosmetic products, laboratory procedures, disinfection, and home building products.
CrofelemerAn antidiarrheal agent used for the symptomatic relief of drug-induced non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy.
SP1049CIntended for the treatment of carcinoma of the oesophagus.
PEG-uricaseInvestigated for use/treatment in hyperuricemia.
Carbopol 974PInvestigated for use/treatment in contraception and HIV prevention.
PRO 2000Investigated for use/treatment in HIV prevention, prevention of stdis, and vaginal infection.
LJP 1082Investigated for use/treatment in autoimmune diseases, strokes, and thrombosis.
Maxy-G34Investigated for use/treatment in adverse effects (chemotherapy) and neutropenics.
IT-101Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified) and solid tumors.
XMT-1001Investigated for use/treatment in solid tumors.
SugammadexA modified gamma cyclodextrin used to reverse neuromuscular blockade induced by vecuronium bromide and rocuronium bromide which are agents used for anesthesia.
EndostatinInvestigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified), macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
TyloxapolTyloxapol is an inhaled surfactant that assists in removing and liquefying and removing bronchopulmonary secretions with mucus and pus. Tyloxapol is administered either through nebulized solution or a stream of...
PegsunerceptInvestigated for use/treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.
Sodium cellulose phosphateSodium cellulose phosphate is used to treat hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been used to prevent kidney stones. This compound is an ion-exchange resin that can not be absorbed by...
Nonoxynol-9A vaginal spermicide used for the non-hormonal contraception in conjunction with other modes of contraception.
PolidocanolA sclerosing agent used for the treatment of uncomplicated spider veins and uncomplicated reticular veins, all less than 3 mm in diameter, in the lower extremity.
Povidone-iodineA topical antiseptic agent used for the treatment and prevention of infection in wounds.
PeginesatidePeginesatide is used for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adult patients on dialysis
Certolizumab pegolA tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker used to treat a variety of autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions like Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, active psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, axial spondyloarthritis, and plaque psoriasis.
Ferric carboxymaltoseAn iron replacement therapy used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with intolerance or inadequate clinical response to oral iron or those who have non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease.
NaloxegolA peripherally-selective opioid antagonist used to treat opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in adult patients with chronic non-cancer pain.
Hydroxyethyl StarchA plasma volume substitute used to treat and prevent hypovolemia.
Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin betaA synthetic erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease.
PentastarchA plasma volume expander used as an adjunct in the management of shock due to hemorrhage, surgery, sepsis, burns or other trauma.
Peginterferon beta-1aAn interferon beta used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
PegloticaseA recombinant uricase used for the treatment of chronic gout in adult patients refractory to conventional therapy.
DextranA low molecular weight dextran used as an adjunctive treatment of shock or impending shock due to hemorrhage, burns, surgery or other trauma, as well as the prophylaxis of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism during high-risk medical procedures.
PatiromerA potassium binder indicated for the treatment of hyperkalemia.
Polyethylene glycolA laxative used to treat constipation and used for bowel preparation before colonoscopies and other procedures.
PolycarbophilPolycarbophil is used to treat constipation and to help maintain regular bowel movements.
FerumoxsilNot Annotated
FerumoxidesNot Annotated
SimethiconeAn anti-flatulence agent used to relieve pressure, bloating, and symptoms referred to as gas.
Karaya gumAn extract from Karaya gum used in allergy testing.
TragacanthAn extract from Tragacanth used in allergy testing.
CarobAn extract from Carob used in allergy testing.
CarboxymethylcelluloseA compound used as an ophthalmic lubricant.
Polyvinyl alcoholA compound used as an ophthalmic lubricant.
PovidoneWhen in complex with iodine, indicated for inducing antisepsis for prevention of infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.
Polysorbate 80It is used as a solubilizer, antimicrobial preservative and disinfectant .
DimethiconeAn ingredient used to treat dry and irritated eyes.
HypromelloseAn ingredient used in a wide variety of medications, and is not an approved medication.
Polyethylene glycol 400An ingredient used in a wide variety of medications, and is not an approved medication.
TurpentineA medication used to treat minor aches and pains of muscles and joints.
PectinPectin is used in food as a gelling agent and stabilizer. As a medical drug, it has obtained a great interest in its potential use as a source of dietary...
Polyethylene glycol 300Indicated as a lubricant in over-the-counter ophthalmic solutions to temporarily relieve redness, burning and irritation of the eyes.
RosinAn extract from Rosin used in allergy testing.
Polysorbate 20Polysorbate 20 is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant used in many commercial, household and pharmaceutical products. It is composed of 20 repeated units of polyethylene glycol via ethoxylation. Polysorbate 20 is...
Tolu balsamNot Annotated
MethylcelluloseA compound used as a bulk forming laxative and is not an approved medication.
PoliglusamPoliglusam, or chitosan, is a linear polysaccharide consisting of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Naturally-occuring poliglusam is found in the cell walls of fungi, soil and sediments where it is produced from...
Poloxamer 407Poloxamer 407 is a polyoxyethylene polymer and hydrophilic non-ionic surfactant. It consists of a central hydrophobic block of polypropylene glycol that is flanked on each side by polyethylene glycol blocks,...
Poloxamer 188A medication used to clean wounds.
GleptoferronColloid solution of ferric hydroxide, dextran & glucoheptonic acid.
PoloxaleneEthylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer is used as a food additive. It belongs to the family of Epoxides. These are compounds containing a cyclic ether with three ring atoms (one oxygen...
Balsam of PeruBalsam of Peru is found in diverse cosmetics and perfumes as well as a flavoring agent in cough syrups, lozenges, chewing gum, and candies. As a medical agent, balsam of...
Insulin peglisproNot Annotated
Drometrizole trisiloxaneAn UV ray absorbing agent used in sunscreens to protect skin from UV radiation.
Starch, cornCorn starch refers to the starch extracted from the corn grain that is commonly used as a food ingredient and chemical additive. Starch is any of a group of polysaccharides...
Hydroxyethyl celluloseAn ingredient used in formulations to alleviate irritation of the skin.
AstodrimerAstodrimer has been used in trials studying the treatment and prevention of Bacterial Vaginosis. It is a lysine-based dendrimer with naphthalene disulfonic acid surface groups.
2-octyl cyanoacrylateDermabond has been investigated for the basic science of Wound Healing.
TrehaloseCabaletta has been used in trials studying the treatment of Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy.
EnbucrilateEnbucrilate is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02468206 (Secondary Prophylaxis of Gastric Variceal Bleed).
PegamotecanPegamotecan has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cancer of Stomach, Sarcoma, Soft Tissue, and Gastroesophageal Cancer.
SizofiranA beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach. Sizofiran has been used...
Guar gumNot Annotated
Sodium apolateNot Annotated
LentinanNot Annotated
DextranomerNot Annotated
Oxidized celluloseNot Annotated
Nonacog beta pegolA recombinant coagulation Factor IX derivative used to treat hemophilia B.
Carbomer homopolymer type CCarbomer homopolymer type C is a high molecular polyanionic substance tested for antiulcerogenic activity.
CyclomethiconeNot Annotated
Hydroxyethyl ethylcelluloseHydroxyethyl ethylcellulose modulates bacterial binding to salivary pellicle; moderately effective in preventing plaque formation.
Microcrystalline celluloseA polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material,...
AmberAmber is a plant/plant extract used in some OTC (over-the-counter) products. It is not an approved drug.
Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylatedFor the management of hemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency) [FDA label], . This medication is a human antihemophilic factor indicated in adolescent and adult patients (12 years and older)...
Calcium polycarbophilA bulk forming laxative used to treat constipation.
TriglymeTriethylene glycol dimethyl ether (also called triglyme) is a glycol ether used as a solvent.
Triethylene glycolNot Available
BetadexNot Available
Calaspargase pegolAn asparagine specific enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PegargiminaseInvestigated for use/treatment in melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Phenyl trimethiconeNot Annotated
Dextrin 2-sulfateInvestigated for use/treatment in HIV prevention.
Peginterferon lambda-1aPeginterferon lambda-1a is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01754974 (Safety and Efficacy Study of Peginterferon Lambda-1a vs. Peginterferon Alfa-2a, Plus Ribavirin in Subjects With Genotype 1 Hepatitis C).
Polyacrylamide (crosslinked; 2 mole percent bisacrylamide)Polyacrylamide (crosslinked; 2 mole percent bisacrylamide) is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00629083 (Bulking Agents for the Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Females).
PolydioxanonePolydioxanone is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00998907 (PDS*Plus and Wound Infections After Laparotomy).
PolydextrosePolydextrose is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02258750 (Assessing a Polydextrose Containing Soup on Food Intake, Appetite and Biomarkers of Satiation and Satiety).
PRM-151PRM-151 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01981850 (A Phase 2 Study Of PRM-151 In Subjects With Myelofibrosis).
AmylopectinAmylopectin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01708694 (Role of Slowly Digesible Starch on Diabetes Risk Factors).
Etirinotecan pegolEtirinotecan pegol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01663012 (Phase II NKTR-102 In Bevacizumab-Resistant High Grade Glioma).
Firtecan pegolFirtecan pegol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01036113 (A Phase 2 Study of EZN-2208 in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer).
Poly(lactic acid)Poly(lactic acid) is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00126308 (Facial Lipoatrophy Trial: Immediate Versus Deferred Injections of Poly-L-Lactic Acid for HIV Facial Lipoatrophy).
Somatropin pegolSomatropin pegol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00715689 (Dose Study in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults Investigating Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of NNC126-0083).
AmyloseAmylose is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01027325 (Resistant Starch Insulin Sensitivity Trial).
Hydroxypropyl betadexHydroxypropyl betadex is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03471143 (Study of IV VTS-270 for Infantile Liver Disease Associated With Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C).
Lulizumab pegolLulizumab pegol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02843659 (Proof of Concept Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of BMS-931699 (Lulizumab) or BMS-986142 in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome).
PegfilgrastimA recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor used to stimulate the production of neutrophils and prevent febrile neutropenia or infections after myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
EndostarEndostar is under investigation for the treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Endostar has been investigated for the treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
BrexanoloneBrexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072].
LipegfilgrastimA medication used to reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in cytotoxic chemotherapy.
OcrylateOcrylate is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01918059 (Cosmetic Outcome Study of Lid Laceration Repair With Suture Versus Tissue Adhesive).
BempegaldesleukinBempegaldesleukin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03729245 (A Study of NKTR-214 in Combination With Nivolumab Compared With the Investigator's Choice of a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) Therapy (Either Sunitinib...
PegilodecakinPegilodecakin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03382912 (Study of Pegilodecakin (LY3500518) With Nivolumab Compared to Nivolumab Alone Second-line Tx in Participants With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer).
PegbelferminPegbelfermin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03486899 (A Study of Experimental Medication BMS-986036 in Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Stage 3 Liver Fibrosis).
Silk sericinNot Annotated
AcaciaAn extract from Acacia used in allergy testing.
Cyclomethicone 5Cyclomethicone 5 is member of cyclomethicone, which are a group of liquid methyl siloxanes that have low viscosity and high volatility. Cyclomethicones are cyclic in structure with a monomer backbone...
CarbomerNot Annotated
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Peginterferon alfa-2aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
PegaspargaseL-asparaginetarget
PegaspargaseThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
ColestipolBile acidstarget
InulinCycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferasetarget
IcodextrinPancreatic alpha-amylaseenzyme
Iron DextranHemoglobin subunit betatarget
Iron DextranHemoglobin subunit alphatarget
Iron DextranFerritin heavy chaintarget
Iron DextranFerritin light chaintarget
Iron DextranSerotransferrincarrier
QuinidineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
QuinidineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
QuinidinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
QuinidinePotassium channel subfamily K member 1target
QuinidinePotassium channel subfamily K member 6target
QuinidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
QuinidineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
QuinidineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
QuinidineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
QuinidineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
QuinidineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
QuinidineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
QuinidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
QuinidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
QuinidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
QuinidineBile salt export pumptransporter
QuinidineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
PramlintideReceptor activity-modifying protein 1target
PramlintideReceptor activity-modifying protein 2target
PramlintideReceptor activity-modifying protein 3target
PramlintideCalcitonin receptortarget
TolevamerPotassiumtarget
CholestyramineBile acidstarget
CellobioseEndoglucanase Gtarget
CellobioseEndoglucanase 5Atarget
CellobioseEndoglucanasetarget
MaltotetraoseGlucan 1,4-alpha-maltotetraohydrolasetarget
MaltotetraoseNeopullulanase 2target
Trehalose-6-PhosphateHTH-type transcriptional regulator TreRtarget
CellotetraoseCellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidasetarget
MaltoseCyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferasetarget
MaltoseAlpha-amylase 2Btarget
MaltoseBeta-amylasetarget
MaltoseMaltogenic alpha-amylasetarget
MaltoseMaltodextrin phosphorylasetarget
MaltoseMaltose-binding periplasmic proteintarget
MaltoseAlpha-glucosidasetarget
MaltoseMaltose binding proteintarget
MaltoseMalto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolasetarget
FormaldehydeD-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidasetarget
FormaldehydeHematopoietic stem cellstarget
CrofelemerCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
CrofelemerAnoctamin-1target
SP1049CDNA topoisomerase 2-alphatarget
PEG-uricaseUric acid degradation bifunctional proteintarget
LJP 1082Beta-2-glycoprotein 1target
XMT-1001DNA topoisomerase 1target
Endostatin72 kDa type IV collagenasetarget
EndostatinMatrix metalloproteinase-9target
EndostatinCollagenase 3target
EndostatinFocal adhesion kinase 1target
EndostatinE-selectintarget
EndostatinCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
TyloxapolLipoprotein lipasetarget
Sodium cellulose phosphateCalcium ionstarget
Nonoxynol-9Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
PeginesatideErythropoietin receptortarget
Certolizumab pegolTumor necrosis factortarget
Certolizumab pegolAlcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]enzyme
NaloxegolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
NaloxegolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
NaloxegolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
NaloxegolMu-type opioid receptortarget
Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin betaErythropoietin receptortarget
Peginterferon beta-1aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PegloticaseUric acidtarget
PatiromerPotassiumtarget
Polyethylene glycolP-glycoprotein 1transporter
CarboxymethylcelluloseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1target
HypromelloseEpithelial cell adhesion moleculetarget
Polyethylene glycol 400Oxidoreductase HTATIP2target
Polyethylene glycol 400Cytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
Polyethylene glycol 400Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3enzyme
Polyethylene glycol 400Sulfotransferase 1A1enzyme
Polyethylene glycol 400Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1target
Polyethylene glycol 400P-glycoprotein 1transporter
TurpentineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
Insulin peglisproCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
AstodrimerEnvelope glycoprotein gp160target
Nonacog beta pegolCoagulation factor VIItarget
Nonacog beta pegolCoagulation factor VIIItarget
Nonacog beta pegolCoagulation factor Xtarget
Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylatedvon Willebrand factortarget
Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylatedvon Willebrand factorcarrier
TriglymeOuter-membrane lipoprotein LolBtarget
TriglymeProfilin-2target
TriglymeOuter-membrane lipoprotein LolBtarget
TriglymeUncharacterized proteintarget
TriglymeSerine acetyltransferasetarget
TriglymeTyrosine-protein kinase Fyntarget
TriglymePeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrialtarget
TriglymeTranscriptional regulator, GntR familytarget
TriglymeABC transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding proteintarget
TriglymeTransketolasetarget
Triethylene glycolAcetolactate synthase, catabolictarget
Triethylene glycolArabinogalactan endo-1,4-beta-galactosidasetarget
Triethylene glycolPhosphoserine aminotransferasetarget
BetadexNeopullulanase 2target
BetadexMaltose-binding periplasmic proteintarget
BetadexMaltogenic amylasetarget
Calaspargase pegolL-asparaginetarget
PegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
PegfilgrastimNeutrophil elastaseenzyme
BrexanoloneGABA(A) Receptortarget
BrexanoloneAldose reductaseenzyme
LipegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget