Calaspargase pegol

Identification

Summary

Calaspargase pegol is an asparagine specific enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Brand Names
Asparlas
Generic Name
Calaspargase pegol
DrugBank Accession Number
DB14730
Background

Asparaginase is an important agent used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 1. Asparagine is incorporated into most proteins, and the synthesis of proteins is stopped when asparagine is absent, which inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis, resulting in a halt in cellular proliferation. This forms the basis of asparaginase treatment in ALL 1, 2, 6.

Calaspargase pegol, also known as asparlas, is an asparagine specific enzyme which is indicated as a part of a multi-agent chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of ALL 3. The asparagine specific enzyme is derived from Escherichia coli, as a conjugate of L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydrolase) and monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) with a succinimidyl carbonate (SC) linker to create a stable molecule which increases the half-life and decreases the dosing frequency Label, 1.

Calaspargase pegol, by Shire pharmaceuticals, was approved by the FDA on December 20, 2018 for acute lymphoblastic anemia (ALL) 3.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved
Synonyms
  • Calaspargase pegol
  • calaspargase pegol-mknl
External IDs
  • EZN-2285

Pharmacology

Indication

This drug is is an asparagine specific enzyme indicated as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in pediatric and young adult patients age 1 month to 21 years Label.

The pharmacokinetics of calaspargase pegol were examined when given in combination with multiagent chemotherapy in 124 patients with B-cell lineage ALL 3. The FDA approval of this drug was based on the achievement and maintenance of nadir serum asparaginase activity above the level of 0.1 U/mL when administering calaspargase, 2500 U/m2 intravenously, at 3-week intervals.

Pharmacology
Reduce drug development failure rates
Build, train, & validate machine-learning models
with evidence-based and structured datasets.
See how
Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
See how
Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
Improve clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.
Learn more
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

The effect of this drug is believed to occur by selective killing of leukemic cells due to depletion of plasma L-asparagine. Leukemic cells with low expression of asparagine synthetase are less capable of producing L-asparagine, and therefore rely on exogenous L-asparagine for survival Label. When asparagine is depleted, tumor cells cannot proliferate 6.

During remission induction, one dose of SC-PEG (2500 IU/m2) results in a sustained therapeutic serum asparaginase activity (SAA) without excessive toxicity or marked differences in the proportion of patients with low end-induction minimum residual disease (MRD) 5.

Pharmacodynamic (PD) response was studied through measurement of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine concentrations with an LC-MS/MS assay (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry). Asparagine concentration in plasma was sustained below the assay limit of quantification for more than 18 days after one dose of calaspargase pegol, 2,500 U/m2, during the induction phase of treatment. Average cerebrospinal asparagine concentrations decreased from a pretreatment concentration of 0.8 μg/mL (N=10) to 0.2 μg/mL on Day 4 (N=37) and stayed decreased at 0.2 μg/mL (N=35) 25 days after the administration of one of 2,500 U/m2 in the induction phase Label.

Mechanism of action

L-asparaginase (the main component of this drug) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-asparagine into both aspartic acid and ammonia Label, 2. This process depletes malignant cells of their required asparagine. The depletion of asparagine then blocks protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. As a result, tumor cell death occurs. Asparagine is important in protein synthesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells which, unlike normal cells, cannot produce this amino acid due to lack of the enzyme asparagine synthase 2, Label.

Pegylation decreases enzyme antigenicity and increases its half-life. Succinimidyl carbamate (SC) is used as a PEG linker to facilitate attachment to asparaginase and enhances the stability of the formulation 4, 1. SC-PEG urethane linkages formed with lysine groups are more hydrolytically stable 2.

TargetActionsOrganism
AL-asparagine
degradation
Humans
Absorption

Mean Tmax (1 h): 1.7 Label.

Volume of distribution

Vss (L): 2.96 Label

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

16.1 days Label

Clearance

0.147 L/day Label

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
Improve decision support & research outcomes
With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.
Learn more
Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Learn more
Toxicity

Pancreatitis, hepatotoxicity, hemorrhage, and thrombosis have been observed with calaspargase pegol use Label.

Pancreatitis: Discontinue this drug in patients with pancreatitis, and monitor blood glucose.

Hepatotoxicity: Hepatic function should be tested regularly, and trough levels of this drug should be measured during the recovery phase of the drug cycle Label.

Hemorrhage or Thrombosis: Discontinue this drug in serious or life-threatening hemorrhage or thrombosis. In cases of hemorrhage, identify the cause of hemorrhage and treat appropriately. Administer anticoagulant therapy as indicated in thrombotic events Label.

A note on hypersensitivity:

Observe the patient for 1 hour after administration of calaspargase pegol for possible hypersensitivity Label. In cases of previous hypersensitivity to this drug, discontinue this drug immediately.

Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed while taking this drug Label.

Pregnancy: There are no available data on the use of calaspargase pegol in pregnant women to confirm a risk of drug-associated major birth defects and miscarriage. Published literature studies in pregnant animals suggest asparagine depletion can cause harm to the animal offspring. It is therefore advisable to inform women of childbearing age of this risk. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for humans is unknown at this time Label.

Pregnancy testing should occur before initiating treatment. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant while taking this drug. Females should use effective contraceptive methods, including a barrier methods, during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose. There is a risk for an interaction between calaspargase pegol and oral contraceptives. The concurrent use of this drug with oral contraceptives should be avoided. Other non-oral contraceptive methods should be used in women of childbearing potential Label.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyproterone acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienogest can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
EstetrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Estetrol can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
EthinylestradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinylestradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethynodiol diacetate can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
GestrinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gestrinone can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Calaspargase pegol.
Interactions
Identify potential medication risks
Easily compare up to 40 drugs with our drug interaction checker.
Get severity rating, description, and management advice.
Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
Drug product information from 10+ global regions
Our datasets provide approved product information including:
dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
Access now
Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
Access now
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AsparlasInjection, solution750 U/1mLIntravenousServier Pharmaceuticals LLC2019-09-27Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
T9FVH03HMZ
CAS number
941577-06-6

References

General References
  1. Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Devidas M, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Keilani T, Lane AR, Loh ML, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Wood B, Wood C, Zheng HW, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of calaspargase pegol Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from Children's Oncology Group Study AALL07P4. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;32(34):3874-82. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.5763. Epub 2014 Oct 27. [Article]
  2. Appel IM, Kazemier KM, Boos J, Lanvers C, Huijmans J, Veerman AJ, van Wering E, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and intracellular effects of PEG-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a single agent window study. Leukemia. 2008 Sep;22(9):1665-79. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.165. Epub 2008 Jun 26. [Article]
  3. Asparlas Approval History [Link]
  4. NCI: Calaspargase Pegol [Link]
  5. Blood Journal: Randomized Study of Pegaspargase (SS-PEG) and Calaspargase Pegol (SPC-PEG) in Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: Results of DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 11-001 [Link]
  6. Medsafe NZ: Erwinaze inj [File]
RxNav
2121417
Wikipedia
Calaspargase_pegol
FDA label
Download (300 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia (MPAL) / Testicular Leukemia1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Locally Advanced / Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Stage II Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v81
0RecruitingTreatmentNK Cell Lymphoma / NK-Cell Leukemia / Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous750 U/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
Build, predict & validate machine-learning models
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new
insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Degradation
References
  1. Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Devidas M, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Keilani T, Lane AR, Loh ML, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Wood B, Wood C, Zheng HW, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of calaspargase pegol Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from Children's Oncology Group Study AALL07P4. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;32(34):3874-82. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.5763. Epub 2014 Oct 27. [Article]
  2. Appel IM, Kazemier KM, Boos J, Lanvers C, Huijmans J, Veerman AJ, van Wering E, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and intracellular effects of PEG-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a single agent window study. Leukemia. 2008 Sep;22(9):1665-79. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.165. Epub 2008 Jun 26. [Article]
  3. Blood Journal: Randomized Study of Pegaspargase (SS-PEG) and Calaspargase Pegol (SPC-PEG) in Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: Results of DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 11-001 [Link]

Drug created on December 21, 2018 17:03 / Updated on August 17, 2021 04:17