ZEN-012

Identification

Generic Name
ZEN-012
DrugBank Accession Number
DB06042
Background

ZEN-012 is a novel small molecule and the first anti-cancer drug in development involving two mechanisms of action: tubulin and topoisomerase II inhibition. ZEN-012 also expresses additional modes of action such as pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties. It is developed for the treatment of solid tumors.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified).

Pharmacology
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

In vitro: ZEN-012 has shown potent in vitro anti-proliferative activity at nanomolar concentrations against human tumor cell lines of different origin. ZEN-012 is active in tumor cell lines which are resistant to cisplatin and doxorubicin as well as to tubulin inhibitors such as vincristine and paclitaxel. Furthermore, it was shown thatZEN-012 is a catalytic inhibitor of the enzyme topoisomerase II with the same potency as amsacrine.

In vivo: Given orally once or twice weekly, ZEN-012 proved to be a potent inhibitor of in vivo tumor growth in mammary, lung, renal, colon, melanoma xenograft models as well as in leukemia cancer models at well tolerated doses (16-40mg/kg). Furthermore,ZEN-012 showed good safety and toxicity profiles in a series of rodent and non-rodent studies.

Mechanism of action

Mode of action studies revealed that the compound ZEN-012 inhibits the polymerization of ß-tubulin in low micromolar concentrations. Competition studies suggest that ZEN-012 interacts with the same binding site on microtubules as colchicine. ZEN-012 destroys the mitotic spindles of the cancer cells, arrests the cancer cells in G2/M phase at low concentrations, mediates DNA fragmentation via inhibition of topoisomerase II and induces apoptosis via various mechanisms.

TargetActionsOrganism
UTubulin beta chainNot AvailableHumans
UTubulin beta-1 chainNot AvailableHumans
UTubulin beta-3 chainNot AvailableHumans
UTubulin beta-4A chainNot AvailableHumans
UDNA topoisomerase 2-alphaNot AvailableHumans
UDNA topoisomerase 2-betaNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Categories

Drug Categories
Not Available
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
Not Available
CAS number
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
PubChem Substance
347910321

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBB
Uniprot ID
P07437
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta chain
Molecular Weight
49670.515 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name
TUBB1
Uniprot ID
Q9H4B7
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta-1 chain
Molecular Weight
50326.56 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. TUBB3 plays a criti...
Gene Name
TUBB3
Uniprot ID
Q13509
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta-3 chain
Molecular Weight
50432.355 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBB4A
Uniprot ID
P04350
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta-4A chain
Molecular Weight
49585.475 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segr...
Gene Name
TOP2A
Uniprot ID
P11388
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Molecular Weight
174383.88 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name
TOP2B
Uniprot ID
Q02880
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 2-beta
Molecular Weight
183265.825 Da

Drug created on November 18, 2007 18:29 / Updated on June 12, 2020 16:52