Identification

Summary

Hypochlorite is an antimicrobial used to treat and prevent infections of the skin and tissue.

Generic Name
Hypochlorite
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11123
Background

Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. Being unstable in the pure form, hypochlorite is most commonly used for bleaching, disinfectation, and water treatment purposes in its salt form, sodium hypochlorite. Hypochlorite is often used as a chemical reagent for chlorination and oxidation reactions.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 51.452
Monoisotopic: 50.963767329
Chemical Formula
ClO
Synonyms
  • Hypochlorit

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for over-the-counter use as a disinfectant agent in the sodium hypochlorite form.

Pharmacology
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Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Sodium hypochlorite exerts antimicrobial actions that depends on the concentration of the available chlorine and the pH of the solution 2. The concentration of the hypochlorite depends on the overall efficiency of disinfection 2.

Mechanism of action

Sodium hypochlorite mediate its antimicrobial action by reacting with fatty acids and amino acids. Via saponification reaction, it acts as an organic and fat solvent, degrading fatty acids to form fatty acids and glycerol 1. This reduces the surface tension of the remaining solution. Sodium hypochlorite may react with amino acids to neutralize them and form water and salt. Hypochlorous acids (HOCl-) present in sodium hypochlorite solutions may act as solvents in contact with organic tissue to release chlorine, which forms chloramines when combined with the protein amino group that disrupt cell metabolism 1. Chlorine in the solution is a strong oxidant that inhibits essential bacterial enzymes leading to an irreversible oxidation of SH groups 1. Eventually hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions degrade and hydrolyze amino acids.

Absorption

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Metabolism

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug. Hypochlorite salts are expected to undergo dissociation.

Route of elimination

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Half-life

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Clearance

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 of sodium hypochlorite in an acute oral toxicity study was 5800 mg/kg in mouse MSDS.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products2
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium hypochloriteDY38VHM5OD7681-52-9SUKJFIGYRHOWBL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Hypochlorous acidunknown712K4CDC107790-92-3QWPPOHNGKGFGJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(Qiqing) Sodium Hypochlorite DisinfectantLiquid6 g/100mLTopicalQingdao precision medical technology co., LTD. Zibo branch2020-06-21Not applicableUS flag
84 DisinfectantLiquid25.9 g/518gExtracorporealJiangsu Hawer Amenities Technology Co.,Ltd2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
84 DisinfectantLiquid40 g/1LExtracorporealWuxi Yongning Daily Chemical Factory2020-03-29Not applicableUS flag
AirocareLiquid1.5 mg/100mLTopicalYukang Co.,Ltd.2021-01-13Not applicableUS flag
Daily Doctor Sterilization PlusSpray0.002 g/1mLTopicalGFC Life Science Co., Ltd.2020-04-29Not applicableUS flag
Dakin's Solution 0.5% ModifiedSolution5 g / LTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Dakins FullSolution5 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1983-12-08Not applicableUS flag
Dakins HalfSolution2.5 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-06-09Not applicableUS flag
Dakins QuarterSolution1.25 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-05-24Not applicableUS flag
Di-Dak-SolSolution0.125 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-02-05Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Diabek-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000005 mg/1mL) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 mL/1mL) + Hypochlorous acid (0.00002 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-11Not applicableUS flag
Diabek-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000004 mg/1mL) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 mL/1mL) + Hypochlorous acid (0.000015 mg/1mL)SolutionBuccalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-02Not applicableUS flag
Diabek-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000005 g/1g) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 g/1g) + Hypochlorous acid (0.00002 g/1g)GelTopicalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-02Not applicableUS flag
K-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000005 mg/1mL) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 mL/1mL) + Hypochlorous acid (0.00005 mg/1mL)GelTopicalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-10Not applicableUS flag
K-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000005 mg/1mL) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 mL/1mL) + Hypochlorous acid (0.00006 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-05Not applicableUS flag
Orak-100Sodium hypochlorite (0.000004 mg/1mL) + Hydrogen peroxide (0.000005 mL/1mL) + Hypochlorous acid (0.000015 mg/1mL)SolutionBuccalJOAQUIN ARMANDO CARDENAS URQUIDEZ2021-03-10Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(Qiqing) Sodium Hypochlorite DisinfectantSodium hypochlorite (6 g/100mL)LiquidTopicalQingdao precision medical technology co., LTD. Zibo branch2020-06-21Not applicableUS flag
84 DisinfectantSodium hypochlorite (25.9 g/518g)LiquidExtracorporealJiangsu Hawer Amenities Technology Co.,Ltd2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
84 DisinfectantSodium hypochlorite (40 g/1L)LiquidExtracorporealWuxi Yongning Daily Chemical Factory2020-03-29Not applicableUS flag
AirocareSodium hypochlorite (1.5 mg/100mL)LiquidTopicalYukang Co.,Ltd.2021-01-13Not applicableUS flag
Daily Doctor Sterilization PlusSodium hypochlorite (0.002 g/1mL)SprayTopicalGFC Life Science Co., Ltd.2020-04-29Not applicableUS flag
Dakins FullSodium hypochlorite (5 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1983-12-08Not applicableUS flag
Dakins HalfSodium hypochlorite (2.5 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-06-09Not applicableUS flag
Dakins QuarterSodium hypochlorite (1.25 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-05-24Not applicableUS flag
Di-Dak-SolSodium hypochlorite (0.125 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-02-05Not applicableUS flag
DisinfectantSodium hypochlorite (5.5 kg/100L)LiquidTopicalGUANGZHOU YIQI TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD2020-05-18Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
D08AX07 — Sodium hypochlorite
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal hypochlorites. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a hypochlorite as its largest oxoanion.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Non-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Non-metal hypochlorites
Direct Parent
Non-metal hypochlorites
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Inorganic oxide / Non-metal hypochlorite
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
monovalent inorganic anion, chlorine oxoanion, chlorine oxide (CHEBI:29222) / an inorganic compound (CPD-12800)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
T5UM7HB19N
CAS number
14380-61-1
InChI Key
WQYVRQLZKVEZGA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/ClO/c1-2/q-1
IUPAC Name
hypochlorite
SMILES
[O-]Cl

References

General References
  1. Estrela C, Estrela CR, Barbin EL, Spano JC, Marchesan MA, Pecora JD: Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite. Braz Dent J. 2002;13(2):113-7. [Article]
  2. Fukuzaki S: Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes. Biocontrol Sci. 2006 Dec;11(4):147-57. [Article]
  3. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE - National Library of Medicine Database - Toxnet [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001050
PubChem Compound
61739
PubChem Substance
347827905
ChemSpider
55632
RxNav
1483317
ChEBI
29222
Wikipedia
Hypochlorite
MSDS
Download (51.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentSkin Disinfection Before Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNecrotic Pulp1
4RecruitingPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Mouthwashes / Polymerase Chain Reaction / Viral Load1
3CompletedPreventionInfectious Diseases1
3CompletedSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma / Radiation Induced Dermatitis1
2CompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentEndodontically Treated Teeth1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1RecruitingTreatmentRoot canal infection1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical6 g/100mL
LiquidExtracorporeal25.9 g/518g
LiquidExtracorporeal40 g/1L
LiquidTopical1.5 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical
SprayCutaneous
SprayTopical0.002 g/1mL
SolutionTopical5 g / L
SolutionTopical5 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical2.5 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical1.25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical0.125 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical2.5 kg/100L
LiquidTopical5.5 kg/100L
LiquidTopical120 mg/1000mL
LiquidTopical0.057 %
LiquidTopical0.114 %
LiquidTopical0.02 g/100mL
GelTopical
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical0.01 g/100mL
SolutionBuccal
LiquidExtracorporeal1 mg/1L
LiquidExtracorporeal420 g/3000mL
GelExtracorporeal0.05 mg/500mL
Solution, concentrateTopical2 kg/4kg
LiquidTopical10 mg/100mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)Decomposes at 40 (sodium hypochlorite)MSDS
water solubilitySoluble (sodium hypochlorite)MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity7.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated at November 28, 2021 11:56