Trefoil factor 1


Trefoil factor 1
  • BCEI
  • Breast cancer estrogen-inducible protein
  • hP1.A
  • PNR-2
  • Polypeptide P1.A
  • Protein pS2
  • PS2
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0049677|Trefoil factor 1
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
Not Available
GO Classification
growth factor activity
carbohydrate metabolic process / cell differentiation / digestion / maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelium / negative regulation of cell proliferation / response to immobilization stress / response to iron ion / response to peptide hormone / wound healing
extracellular space
General Function
Stabilizer of the mucous gel overlying the gastrointestinal mucosa that provides a physical barrier against various noxious agents. May inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals in urine.
Specific Function
Growth factor activity
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0049678|Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1)
Chromosome Location
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDP04155
UniProtKB Entry NameTFF1_HUMAN
General References
  1. Jakowlew SB, Breathnach R, Jeltsch JM, Masiakowski P, Chambon P: Sequence of the pS2 mRNA induced by estrogen in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Mar 26;12(6):2861-78. [Article]
  2. Prud'homme JF, Fridlansky F, Le Cunff M, Atger M, Mercier-Bodart C, Pichon MF, Milgrom E: Cloning of a gene expressed in human breast cancer and regulated by estrogen in MCF-7 cells. DNA. 1985 Feb;4(1):11-21. [Article]
  3. Jeltsch JM, Roberts M, Schatz C, Garnier JM, Brown AM, Chambon P: Structure of the human oestrogen-responsive gene pS2. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Feb 25;15(4):1401-14. [Article]
  4. Takahashi H, Kida N, Fujii R, Tanaka K, Ohta M, Mori K, Hayashi K: Expression of the pS2 gene in human gastric cancer cells derived from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. FEBS Lett. 1990 Feb 26;261(2):283-6. [Article]
  5. Mori K, Fujii R, Kida N, Takahashi H, Ohkubo S, Fujino M, Ohta M, Hayashi K: Complete primary structure of the human estrogen-responsive gene (pS2) product. J Biochem. 1990 Jan;107(1):73-6. [Article]
  6. Berry A, Scott HS, Kudoh J, Talior I, Korostishevsky M, Wattenhofer M, Guipponi M, Barras C, Rossier C, Shibuya K, Wang J, Kawasaki K, Asakawa S, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Antonarakis S, Bonne-Tamir B: Refined localization of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness DFNB10 locus using 34 novel microsatellite markers, genomic structure, and exclusion of six known genes in the region. Genomics. 2000 Aug 15;68(1):22-9. [Article]
  7. Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, Watanabe H, Yada T, Park HS, Toyoda A, Ishii K, Totoki Y, Choi DK, Groner Y, Soeda E, Ohki M, Takagi T, Sakaki Y, Taudien S, Blechschmidt K, Polley A, Menzel U, Delabar J, Kumpf K, Lehmann R, Patterson D, Reichwald K, Rump A, Schillhabel M, Schudy A, Zimmermann W, Rosenthal A, Kudoh J, Schibuya K, Kawasaki K, Asakawa S, Shintani A, Sasaki T, Nagamine K, Mitsuyama S, Antonarakis SE, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Nordsiek G, Hornischer K, Brant P, Scharfe M, Schon O, Desario A, Reichelt J, Kauer G, Blocker H, Ramser J, Beck A, Klages S, Hennig S, Riesselmann L, Dagand E, Haaf T, Wehrmeyer S, Borzym K, Gardiner K, Nizetic D, Francis F, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Yaspo ML: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):311-9. [Article]
  8. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [Article]
  9. Rio MC, Lepage P, Diemunsch P, Roitsch C, Chambon P: [Primary structure of human protein pS2]. C R Acad Sci III. 1988;307(19):825-31. [Article]
  10. Westley BR, Griffin SM, May FE: Interaction between TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor trefoil protein, and TFIZ1, a brichos domain-containing protein with homology to SP-C. Biochemistry. 2005 Jun 7;44(22):7967-75. [Article]
  11. Chutipongtanate S, Nakagawa Y, Sritippayawan S, Pittayamateekul J, Parichatikanond P, Westley BR, May FE, Malasit P, Thongboonkerd V: Identification of human urinary trefoil factor 1 as a novel calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3613-22. Epub 2005 Nov 23. [Article]
  12. Mori K, Fujii R, Kida N, Ohta M, Hayashi K: Identification of a polypeptide secreted by human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) as the human estrogen-responsive gene (pS2) product. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Aug 30;155(1):366-72. [Article]
  13. Zhang Z, Henzel WJ: Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. Protein Sci. 2004 Oct;13(10):2819-24. Epub 2004 Aug 31. [Article]
  14. Rio MC, Bellocq JP, Daniel JY, Tomasetto C, Lathe R, Chenard MP, Batzenschlager A, Chambon P: Breast cancer-associated pS2 protein: synthesis and secretion by normal stomach mucosa. Science. 1988 Aug 5;241(4866):705-8. [Article]
  15. Shi SQ, Cai JT, Yang JM: Expression of trefoil factors 1 and 2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 21;12(19):3119-22. [Article]
  16. Ren JL, Luo JY, Lu YP, Wang L, Shi HX: Molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Dec 7;12(45):7361-4. [Article]
  17. Madsen J, Nielsen O, Tornoe I, Thim L, Holmskov U: Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007 May;55(5):505-13. Epub 2007 Jan 22. [Article]
  18. Polshakov VI, Frenkiel TA, Westley B, Chadwick M, May F, Carr MD, Feeney J: NMR-based structural studies of the pNR-2/pS2 single domain trefoil peptide. Similarities to porcine spasmolytic peptide and evidence for a monomeric structure. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Nov 1;233(3):847-55. [Article]
  19. Polshakov VI, Williams MA, Gargaro AR, Frenkiel TA, Westley BR, Chadwick MP, May FE, Feeney J: High-resolution solution structure of human pNR-2/pS2: a single trefoil motif protein. J Mol Biol. 1997 Mar 28;267(2):418-32. [Article]
  20. Park WS, Oh RR, Park JY, Lee JH, Shin MS, Kim HS, Lee HK, Kim YS, Kim SY, Lee SH, Yoo NJ, Lee JY: Somatic mutations of the trefoil factor family 1 gene in gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2000 Sep;119(3):691-8. [Article]
  21. Yio X, Diamond M, Zhang JY, Weinstein H, Wang LH, Werther L, Itzkowitz S: Trefoil factor family-1 mutations enhance gastric cancer cell invasion through distinct signaling pathways. Gastroenterology. 2006 May;130(6):1696-706. [Article]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00481Raloxifeneapproved, investigationalunknownDetails