Lymphocyte antigen 96


Lymphocyte antigen 96
  • ESOP-1
  • ESOP1
  • Ly-96
  • MD2
  • Protein MD-2
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0037270|Lymphocyte antigen 96
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
GO Classification
coreceptor activity / lipopolysaccharide receptor activity
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway / apoptotic process / cell surface receptor signaling pathway / cellular defense response / detection of lipopolysaccharide / extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway / I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling / inflammatory response / innate immune response / lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway / MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway / MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway / positive regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway / positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production / programmed cell death / response to lipopolysaccharide / toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway / toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway / toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway / toll-like receptor signaling pathway / toll-like receptor TLR1 / toll-like receptor TLR6 / TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
endosome membrane / extracellular space / intrinsic component of plasma membrane / lipopolysaccharide receptor complex / plasma membrane
General Function
Lipopolysaccharide receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021698|Lymphocyte antigen 96 (LY96)
Chromosome Location
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDQ9Y6Y9
UniProtKB Entry NameLY96_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID5051740
GenBank Gene IDAB018549
General References
  1. Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, Nagai Y, Fukudome K, Miyake K, Kimoto M: MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med. 1999 Jun 7;189(11):1777-82. [PubMed:10359581]
  2. Kato K, Morrison AM, Nakano T, Tashiro K, Honjo T: ESOP-1, a secreted protein expressed in the hematopoietic, nervous, and reproductive systems of embryonic and adult mice. Blood. 2000 Jul 1;96(1):362-4. [PubMed:10891475]
  3. Schromm AB, Lien E, Henneke P, Chow JC, Yoshimura A, Heine H, Latz E, Monks BG, Schwartz DA, Miyake K, Golenbock DT: Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line: a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling. J Exp Med. 2001 Jul 2;194(1):79-88. [PubMed:11435474]
  4. Nakajima T, Ohtani H, Satta Y, Uno Y, Akari H, Ishida T, Kimura A: Natural selection in the TLR-related genes in the course of primate evolution. Immunogenetics. 2008 Dec;60(12):727-35. doi: 10.1007/s00251-008-0332-0. Epub 2008 Sep 23. [PubMed:18810425]
  5. Nusbaum C, Mikkelsen TS, Zody MC, Asakawa S, Taudien S, Garber M, Kodira CD, Schueler MG, Shimizu A, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Allen NR, Anderson S, Asakawa T, Blechschmidt K, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Butler J, Cook A, Corum B, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dooley KT, Dorris L 3rd, Engels R, Glockner G, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hall JL, Ishikawa SK, Jaffe DB, Kamat A, Kudoh J, Lehmann R, Lokitsang T, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews CD, Mauceli E, Menzel U, Mihalev AH, Minoshima S, Murayama Y, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Parker SC, Polley A, Raymond CK, Reichwald K, Rodriguez J, Sasaki T, Schilhabel M, Siddiqui R, Smith CL, Sneddon TP, Talamas JA, Tenzin P, Topham K, Venkataraman V, Wen G, Yamazaki S, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Rosenthal A, Birren BW, Platzer M, Shimizu N, Lander ES: DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):331-5. [PubMed:16421571]
  6. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  7. da Silva Correia J, Soldau K, Christen U, Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ: Lipopolysaccharide is in close proximity to each of the proteins in its membrane receptor complex. transfer from CD14 to TLR4 and MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 15;276(24):21129-35. Epub 2001 Mar 26. [PubMed:11274165]
  8. Dziarski R, Wang Q, Miyake K, Kirschning CJ, Gupta D: MD-2 enables Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated responses to lipopolysaccharide and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components. J Immunol. 2001 Feb 1;166(3):1938-44. [PubMed:11160242]
  9. Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JA, Segal DM: Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to Toll-like receptor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 9;98(21):12156-61. Epub 2001 Oct 2. [PubMed:11593030]
  10. Mullen GE, Kennedy MN, Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Leifer CA, Davies DR, Segal DM: The role of disulfide bonds in the assembly and function of MD-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 1;100(7):3919-24. Epub 2003 Mar 17. [PubMed:12642668]
  11. Kim HM, Park BS, Kim JI, Kim SE, Lee J, Oh SC, Enkhbayar P, Matsushima N, Lee H, Yoo OJ, Lee JO: Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran. Cell. 2007 Sep 7;130(5):906-17. [PubMed:17803912]
  12. Ohto U, Fukase K, Miyake K, Satow Y: Crystal structures of human MD-2 and its complex with antiendotoxic lipid IVa. Science. 2007 Jun 15;316(5831):1632-4. [PubMed:17569869]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB03017Lauric acidapproved, experimentalunknownDetails
DB02767(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB08231Myristic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00295Morphineapproved, investigationalunknownactivatorDetails