Identification

Name
Morphine
Accession Number
DB00295
Description

Morphine, the main alkaloid of opium, was first obtained from poppy seeds in 1805.1 It is a potent analgesic, though its use is limited due to tolerance, withdrawal, and the risk of abuse.2 Morphine is still routinely used today, though there are a number of semi-synthetic opioids of varying strength such as codeine, fentanyl, methadone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, meperidine, and oxycodone.

Morphine was granted FDA approval in 1941.13

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 285.3377
Monoisotopic: 285.136493479
Chemical Formula
C17H19NO3
Synonyms
  • (−)-morphine
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5R,6S,9R,13S,14R)-4,5-epoxy-N-methyl-7-morphinen-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (7R,7AS,12bs)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methano[1]benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol
  • Anhydrous morphine
  • Morfina
  • Morphia
  • Morphin
  • Morphine
  • Morphinum
  • Morphium
External IDs
  • IDS-NM-009
  • N02AA01

Pharmacology

Indication

Morphine is used for the management of chronic, moderate to severe pain.2

Opiods, including morphine, are effective for the short term management of pain. Patients taking opioids long term may need to be monitored for the development of physical dependence, addiction disorder, and drug abuse.11

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Morphine binding to opioid receptors blocks transmission of nociceptive signals, signals pain-modulating neurons in the spinal cord, and inhibits primary afferent nociceptors to the dorsal horn sensory projection cells.1

Morphine has a time to onset of 6-30 minutes.1 Excess consumption of morphine and other opioids can lead to changes in synaptic neuroplasticity, including changes in neuron density, changes at postsynaptic sites, and changes at dendritic terminals.3

Intravenous morphine's analgesic effect is sex dependent. The EC50 in men is 76ng/mL and in women is 22ng/mL.5

Morphine-6-glucuronide is 22 times less potent than morphine in eliciting pupil constriction.5

Mechanism of action

Morphine-6-glucuronide is responsible for approximately 85% of the response observed by morphine administration.4 Morphine and its metabolites act as agonists of the mu and kappa opioid receptors.1 The mu-opioid receptor is integral to morphine's effects on the ventral tegmental area of the brain. Morphine's activation of the reward pathway is mediated by agonism of the delta-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens,2 while modification of the respiratory system and addiction disorder are mediated by agonism of the mu-opioid receptor.3

TargetActionsOrganism
AMu-type opioid receptor
agonist
Humans
AKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Humans
ADelta-type opioid receptor
agonist
Humans
ULymphocyte antigen 96
activator
Humans
Absorption

Morphine is absorbed in the alkaline environments of the upper intestine and rectal mucosa.6 The bioavailability of morphine is 80-100%.8 There is significant first-pass metabolism, therefore oral doses are 6 times larger than parenteral doses to achieve the same effect. Morphine reaches steady-state concentrations after 24-48 hours.1 Parenteral morphine has a Tmax of 15 minutes and oral morphine has a Tmax of 90 minutes, with a Cmax of 283nmol/L.7,8 The AUC of morphine is 225-290nmol*h/L.8

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of morphine is 5.31L/kg.6 Morphine-6-glucuronide has a volume of distribution of 3.61L/kg.6

Protein binding

Morphine is 35% protein bound, the metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide is 10% protein bound, and morphine-6-glucuronide is 15% protein bound.4

Metabolism

Morphine is 90% metabolized by glucuronidation by UGT2B7 and sulfation at positions 3 and 6.4 Morphine can also be metabolized to codeine, normorphine, and morphine ethereal sulfate.6

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

70-80% of an administered dose is excreted within 48 hours.6 Morphine is predominantly eliminated in the urine with 2-10% of a dose recovered as the unchanged parent drug.4 7-10% of a dose of morphine is eliminated in the feces.13

Half-life

Morphine has a half life of 2-3 hours.5

Clearance

The apparent clearance of intravenous or subcutaneous morphine is 1600 mL/min.8

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

The LD50 is 0.78µg/mL in males and 0.98µg/mL in females.9

Patients experiencing an overdose present with respiratory depression, somnolence, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, miosis, and mydriasis. Symptoms of overdose can progress to pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, and death.12 Treat overdose with symptomatic and supportive treatment which may include the use of oxygen, vasopressors, and naloxone.12

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Morphine Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Action PathwayDrug action
Heroin Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Heroin Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Morphine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Multidrug resistance protein 1---(T;T) / (C;T)T AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype may have an increased analgesic response to morphine.Details
Mu-type opioid receptor---(A;A)A AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype may have an increased analgesic response to morphine.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Morphine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibThe serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Acebutolol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of hypotension and CNS depression can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with Morphine.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Aclidinium.
AdalimumabThe metabolism of Morphine can be increased when combined with Adalimumab.
AdenineThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with Adenine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
    Available for Purchase

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
    Available for Purchase

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action
    Available for Purchase

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol. Concomitant use may lead to profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death.
  • Take with or without food. There is no significant different in the AUC or Cmax of oral extended release tablets when taken with or without food.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Morphine acetateVEO43W5229596-15-6CLDOGJORCNORLA-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine hydrochlorideJ28GE0ROVX52-26-6XCKKIKBIPZJUET-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine mesylateQXB8THK8QY335328-17-1MHEMFNFIWLUDDJ-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine nitrateDV2P23JCWV596-16-7VHBDDUMTLJSZDR-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine phosphate1LQ9207LZE596-17-8KZSZGTYWWBPNKB-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine sulfateDY70C97N3064-31-3USAHOPJHPJHUNS-IFCNUISUSA-N
Morphine sulfate pentahydrateX3P646A2J06211-15-0GRVOTVYEFDAHCL-RTSZDRIGSA-N
Morphine tartrateU3NSU23LHD302-31-8SVTKSKRNLMAUKF-HAIKCVHQSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Kapanol (Mayne Pharma/Glaxo) / MSIR (Purdue Pharma) / Oramorph (Boeringher Ingelheim)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release30 mg/1OralZyla Life Sciences US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release15 mg/1OralZyla Life Sciences US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release60 mg/1OralZyla Life Sciences US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUS flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release120 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2002-03-202017-01-31US flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2002-03-202010-09-01US flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-10-302012-06-30US flag
AvinzaCapsule, coated, extended release60 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2011-10-252015-07-10US flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2002-03-20Not applicableUS flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release60 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2002-03-202017-01-31US flag
AvinzaCapsule, extended release60 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2002-03-202014-03-01US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012013-02-28US flag
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-11-30US flag
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-06-30US flag
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-08-31US flag
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-09-302013-03-31US flag
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012013-04-30US flag
Astramorph PFInjection, solution0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-09-282013-05-10US flag
Astramorph PFInjection, solution1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-09-282013-05-10US flag
Bar-morphine SRTablet, extended releaseOralBard Pharmaceuticals (1990) IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bar-morphine SRTablet, extended releaseOralBard Pharmaceuticals (1990) IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (60 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (2.4 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (0.8 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (100 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (4 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (50 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (.8 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralStat Rx USA2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (80 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (3.2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (30 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (1.2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (5 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1971-01-012017-05-31US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalPaddock Laboratories, LLC1990-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-112015-02-01US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; IntravenousCantrell Drug Company2012-02-22Not applicableUS flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (30 mg/30mL)Injection, solutionIntravenous; SubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1987-03-272010-09-23US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (10 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1997-06-092014-03-01US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-10-25Not applicableUS flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (15 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1971-01-012017-02-28US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (8 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1997-06-092013-10-01US flag
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (10 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-112011-06-30US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A07DA52 — Morphine, combinationsN02AA51 — Morphine, combinationsN02AA01 — MorphineN02AG01 — Morphine and antispasmodics
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Morphinans
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Morphinans
Alternative Parents
Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / Coumarans / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Piperidines / Trialkylamines / Secondary alcohols / Oxacyclic compounds
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Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Coumaran / Ether
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
morphinane alkaloid, organic heteropentacyclic compound (CHEBI:17303) / Alkaloids, Isoquinoline alkaloids (C01516)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
76I7G6D29C
CAS number
57-27-2
InChI Key
BQJCRHHNABKAKU-KBQPJGBKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H19NO3/c1-18-7-6-17-10-3-5-13(20)16(17)21-15-12(19)4-2-9(14(15)17)8-11(10)18/h2-5,10-11,13,16,19-20H,6-8H2,1H3/t10-,11+,13-,16-,17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,5R,13R,14S,17R)-4-methyl-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0^{1,13}.0^{5,17}.0^{7,18}]octadeca-7(18),8,10,15-tetraene-10,14-diol
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[[email protected]@]11CCN(C)[[email protected]]([H])(C4)[[email protected]]1([H])C=C[[email protected]@H]2O

References

Synthesis Reference
US4764615
General References
  1. Pacifici GM: Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2016 Aug;71(8):474-80. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2016(08)11. [PubMed:27626479]
  2. Kim J, Ham S, Hong H, Moon C, Im HI: Brain Reward Circuits in Morphine Addiction. Mol Cells. 2016 Sep;39(9):645-53. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2016.0137. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27506251]
  3. Beltran-Campos V, Silva-Vera M, Garcia-Campos ML, Diaz-Cintra S: Effects of morphine on brain plasticity. Neurologia. 2015 Apr;30(3):176-80. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2014.08.004. Epub 2014 Nov 11. [PubMed:25444409]
  4. Klimas R, Mikus G: Morphine-6-glucuronide is responsible for the analgesic effect after morphine administration: a quantitative review of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-glucuronide. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Dec;113(6):935-44. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeu186. Epub 2014 Jul 1. [PubMed:24985077]
  5. Lotsch J: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of opioids. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 May;29(5 Suppl):S90-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.01.012. [PubMed:15907650]
  6. Hoskin PJ, Hanks GW: Morphine: pharmacokinetics and clinical practice. Br J Cancer. 1990 Nov;62(5):705-7. [PubMed:2245160]
  7. Glare PA, Walsh TD: Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine. Ther Drug Monit. 1991 Jan;13(1):1-23. [PubMed:2057987]
  8. Stuart-Harris R, Joel SP, McDonald P, Currow D, Slevin ML: The pharmacokinetics of morphine and morphine glucuronide metabolites after subcutaneous bolus injection and subcutaneous infusion of morphine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;49(3):207-14. [PubMed:10718775]
  9. Shigeev S: Severity of opiate intoxication to gender and age. Soud Lek. 2007 Jan;52(1):21-4. [PubMed:17370507]
  10. FDA approvals [Link]
  11. NIH [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Infumorph Morphine Sulfate Injection [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Morphine Sulfate Oral Tablets [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014440
KEGG Drug
D08233
KEGG Compound
C01516
PubChem Compound
5288826
PubChem Substance
46505161
ChemSpider
4450907
BindingDB
50000092
RxNav
7052
ChEBI
17303
ChEMBL
CHEMBL70
ZINC
ZINC000003812983
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000071
PharmGKB
PA450550
PDBe Ligand
MOI
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Morphine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08 — Opiate Agonists
PDB Entries
1q0y
FDA label
Download (277 KB)
MSDS
Download (52.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionChronic Pain Post-Procedural1
4CompletedNot AvailableAbdominal Pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Heart Disease1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePharyngeal Dysfunction / Pharyngeal Swallowing1
4CompletedDiagnosticAbdominal Cancer1
4CompletedDiagnosticAppendicitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Ekr therapeutics inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • Mallinckrodt chemical inc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Endo pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Purdue pharma lp
  • Xanodyne pharmaceutics inc
  • Actavis
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Alpharma Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Cerovene Inc.
  • Cody Laboratories Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Edenbridge Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • EKR Therapeutics Inc.
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • G & W Labs
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ide Interstate
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Lehigh Valley Technologies Inc.
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Marathon Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Meridian Medical Technologies Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • P F Laboratories Inc.
  • Pacira Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Purdue Pharma LP
  • Quality Care
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Roxane Labs
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Tercica Inc.
  • Upsher Smith Laboratories
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Capsule, coated, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral120 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral75 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
SolutionOral3.6 mg/15mL
SuspensionOral1.2 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral23 mg/100mL
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral300 mg
Injection, lipid complexEpidural10 mg/1mL
Injection, lipid complexEpidural15 mg/1.5mL
Injection, lipid complexEpidural20 mg/2mL
SyrupOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal25 mg/1mL
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral130 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral150 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral70 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral10 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral30 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral60 MG
CapsuleOral
Capsule, coated pellets10 mg
Capsule, coated pellets100 mg
Capsule, coated pellets30 mg
Capsule, coated pellets60 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral12 mL/100mL
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal200 mg/20mL
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal500 mg/20mL
SuspensionOral450 mcL/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral30 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral15 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral60 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.01 g/ml
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.02 g/ml
Injection
SolutionOral30 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral10 MG/ML
Injection, solutionParenteral100 MG/5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral100 MG/10ML
Injection, solutionParenteral20 MG/ML
Injection, solutionParenteral200 MG/10ML
Injection, solutionParenteral50 MG/5ML
SolutionEpidural0.01 G
SolutionEpidural0.02 G
Tablet, extended releaseOral20 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral45 MG
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 MG/ ML
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.01 gr
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.02 gr
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionEpidural; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
InjectionIntramuscular10 mg/0.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous15 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous8 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral1 mg/1mL
Injection, solution10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intraspinal; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Subarachnoid0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intraspinal; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Subarachnoid1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal40 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/30mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous50 mg/1mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionOral10 mg/5mL
SolutionOral10 mg/0.5mL
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral20 mg/5mL
Solution, concentrateOral100 mg/5mL
Solution, concentrateOral20 mg/1mL
SuppositoryRectal10 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal20 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal30 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal5 mg/1
TabletOral15 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral15 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral60 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionIntravenous
TabletOral10 mg
SolutionOral100 mg/5mL
LiquidIntravenous; Subcutaneous
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1ml
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous15 mg/1ml
SolutionEpidural
Granule, for suspensionOral100 MG
Granule, for suspensionOral20 MG
Granule, for suspensionOral200 MG
Granule, for suspensionOral30 MG
Granule, for suspensionOral60 MG
Suppository, extended releaseRectal
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
Granule, delayed releaseOral100 mg
Granule, delayed releaseOral20 mg
Granule, delayed releaseOral30 mg
Granule, delayed releaseOral60 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral120 mg
CapsuleOral200 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral60 mg
TinctureOral10 mg/1mL
TinctureOral
SolutionOral1 g/100mL
SolutionOral10 mg/1mL
SolutionOral20 MG/ML
SolutionOral30 MG/5ML
SyrupOral2 MG/ML
SolutionOral10 mg
SolutionOral100 mg
SolutionOral2 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOral20 mg/ml
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral60 mg/1
LiquidOral2 mg/5mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 MG/ML
Solution / dropsOral
SuppositoryRectal
TabletOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 MG
SuspensionOral12 mL/100mL
SolutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/ml
InjectionParenteral100 mg
InjectionParenteral200 mg
SolutionOral5 mg/ml
SolutionOral1.2 mg/5mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Depodur 15 mg/1.5 ml vial618.18USD ml
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 120ml Bottle95.98USD bottle
Morphine Sulfate 20 mg/5ml Solution 500ml Bottle65.05USD bottle
Apokyn 30 mg/3 ml cartridge52.48USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/5ml Solution 500ml Bottle38.55USD bottle
Kadian er 200 mg capsule35.43USD capsule
Kadian er 100 mg capsule23.01USD capsule
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 30ml Bottle22.99USD bottle
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/5ml Solution 100ml Bottle21.99USD bottle
Oramorph sr 60 mg tablet21.76USD tablet
Ms contin 200 mg tablet21.5USD tablet
Kadian er 80 mg capsule18.66USD capsule
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 240ml Bottle17.99USD bottle
Avinza 90 mg capsule17.56USD capsule
Oramorph sr 100 mg tablet17.16USD tablet
Kadian 100 mg 24 Hour Capsule16.93USD capsule
MS Contin 200 mg 12 Hour tablet16.32USD tablet
Kadian 100 mg capsule sr16.25USD capsule
Kadian er 60 mg capsule14.31USD capsule
AVINza 90 mg 24 Hour Capsule13.21USD capsule
Kadian 80 mg capsule sr12.96USD capsule
Avinza 120 mg capsule12.07USD capsule
Kadian er 50 mg capsule11.76USD capsule
Ms contin 100 mg tablet11.75USD tablet
Avinza 60 mg capsule11.58USD capsule
AVINza 120 mg 24 Hour Capsule11.33USD capsule
Avinza 75 mg capsule10.79USD capsule
Morphine sulfate powder10.61USD g
Avinza 45 mg capsule10.22USD capsule
Kadian 60 mg 24 Hour Capsule9.06USD capsule
Morphine Sulfate CR 200 mg 12 Hour tablet8.97USD tablet
MS Contin 100 mg 12 Hour tablet8.89USD tablet
Morphine sulf 30 mg suppository8.44USD suppository
AVINza 60 mg 24 Hour Capsule8.36USD capsule
Ms contin 60 mg tablet7.95USD tablet
Infumorph 10 mg/ml ampul p-f7.8USD ml
Kadian 50 mg 24 Hour Capsule7.71USD capsule
Kadian er 30 mg capsule7.13USD capsule
Oramorph sr 30 mg tablet6.83USD tablet
Morphine sulf 20 mg suppository6.71USD suppository
Kadian er 10 mg capsule6.35USD capsule
Morphine sulf 10 mg suppository6.25USD suppository
Avinza 30 mg capsule6.0USD capsule
MS Contin 60 mg 12 Hour tablet5.71USD tablet
Kadian er 20 mg capsule5.69USD capsule
Ms Contin 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet5.62USD tablet
Kadian 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.8USD capsule
Kadian 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.76USD capsule
AVINza 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.47USD capsule
Morphine sulf 5 mg suppository4.45USD suppository
Morphine Sulfate CR 100 mg 12 Hour tablet4.33USD tablet
M-Eslon 200 mg Extended-Release Capsule4.3USD capsule
Oramorph sr 15 mg tablet4.12USD tablet
Ms contin cr 30 mg tablet4.09USD tablet
Kadian 10 mg capsule sr4.05USD capsule
Morphine Hp 50 50 mg/ml4.01USD ml
Kadian 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.0USD capsule
Ms contin 15 mg tablet3.58USD tablet
MS Contin 30 mg 12 Hour tablet3.26USD tablet
Novo-Morphine Sr 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.09USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.09USD tablet
Ms Contin 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.02USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate CR 60 mg 12 Hour tablet3.0USD tablet
Morphine Hp 25 25 mg/ml2.9USD ml
Statex 30 mg Suppository2.55USD suppository
Kadian 100 mg Sustained-Release Capsule2.35USD capsule
Statex 20 mg Suppository2.32USD suppository
Morphine Lp Epidural 1 mg/ml2.24USD ml
M-Eslon 100 mg Extended-Release Capsule2.15USD capsule
MS Contin 15 mg 12 Hour tablet2.13USD tablet
Ms Contin 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.98USD tablet
Statex 10 mg Suppository1.95USD suppository
Morph sulf 5 mg/0.25 ml vial1.83USD vial
Statex 5 mg Suppository1.75USD suppository
Novo-Morphine Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.66USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.66USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate CR 30 mg 12 Hour tablet1.63USD tablet
Morphine 8 mg/ml ampule1.56USD ml
Kadian 50 mg Sustained-Release Capsule1.35USD capsule
Duramorph 0.5 mg/ml ampul1.31USD ml
Astramorph-pf 1 mg/ml ampul1.15USD ml
Ms Contin 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.13USD tablet
Morphine Lp Epidural 0.5 mg/ml1.12USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 15 mg/ml1.03USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/ml1.02USD ml
Novo-Morphine Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
M-Eslon 60 mg Extended-Release Capsule1.0USD capsule
Statex 50 mg/ml Drops0.99USD ml
Morphine Sulfate CR 15 mg 12 Hour tablet0.93USD tablet
Duramorph 1 mg/ml ampul0.91USD ml
M.O.S.-Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.89USD tablet
Morphine 50 mg/25 ml-d5w syr0.86USD ml
Morphine-ns 10 mg/ml syringe0.86USD ml
Morphine-ns 5 mg/ml syringe0.8USD ml
Ms Contin 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.75USD tablet
Morphine 5 mg/ml vial0.74USD ml
Kadian 20 mg Sustained-Release Capsule0.73USD capsule
Astramorph-pf 0.5 mg/ml amp0.72USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 15 mg tablet0.65USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate 30 mg tablet0.65USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml vial p-f0.6USD ml
Morphine-ns 1 mg/ml syringe0.58USD ml
Novo-Morphine Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
M-Eslon 30 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.56USD capsule
Morphine 0.5 mg/ml vial0.55USD ml
Morphine sulfate 50 mg/ml vial0.55USD ml
Morphine sulfate ir 30 mg tablet0.55USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine 20 mg/ml Syrup0.55USD syrup
Statex 20 mg/ml Drops0.52USD ml
M.O.S.-Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.51USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml syringe0.48USD ml
Morphine 10 mg/ml vial0.48USD ml
Ms.Ir 30 mg Tablet0.48USD tablet
Morphine sulfate 25 mg/ml vial0.43USD ml
Morphine sulf 1 mg/ml vial0.4USD ml
M.O.S. Sulfate 50 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Statex 50 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Kadian 10 mg Sustained-Release Capsule0.38USD capsule
M-Eslon 15 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.38USD capsule
Ms.Ir 20 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Novo-Morphine Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
M-Eslon 10 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.33USD capsule
Morphine sulfate ir 15 mg tablet0.32USD tablet
Morphine 15 mg/ml vial0.3USD ml
Morphine-ns 25 mg/25 ml syr0.26USD ml
M.O.S. Sulfate 25 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Statex 25 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Ms.Ir 10 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine 10 mg/ml Syrup0.19USD syrup
M.O.S. Sulfate 10 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Statex 10 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Morphine-ns 5 mg/ml0.16USD ml
Morphine-ns 55 mg/55 ml syr0.14USD ml
Ms.Ir 5 mg Tablet0.14USD tablet
M.O.S. Sulfate 5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Statex 5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml-d5w 100 ml0.1USD ml
Morphine-ns 150 mg/150 ml0.1USD ml
Statex 5 mg/ml Syrup0.08USD ml
Morphine 1 mg/ml-d5w 250 ml0.06USD ml
Ratio-Morphine 5 mg/ml Syrup0.05USD syrup
Ratio-Morphine 1 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD syrup
Statex 1 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5378474No1995-01-032010-03-23US flag
CA2065210No2000-08-292012-04-06Canada flag
CA2128591No1999-03-232014-07-21Canada flag
US6066339No2000-05-232017-11-25US flag
US5931809No1999-08-032015-07-14US flag
US5962016No1999-10-052017-01-31US flag
US6193998No2001-02-272016-09-01US flag
US5997899No1999-12-072016-09-01US flag
US6241999No2001-06-052016-09-01US flag
US5807572No1998-09-152015-09-15US flag
US5891467No1999-04-062017-01-31US flag
US6171613No2001-01-092016-10-01US flag
US8685443No2014-04-012025-07-03US flag
US8158156No2012-04-172027-06-19US flag
US7682633No2010-03-232027-06-19US flag
US8623418No2014-01-072029-11-07US flag
US8685444No2014-04-012025-07-03US flag
US8846104No2014-09-302027-06-19US flag
US7815934No2010-10-192027-12-12US flag
US7682634No2010-03-232027-06-19US flag
US8877247No2014-11-042027-06-19US flag
US9192608No2015-11-242034-03-12US flag
US9072781No2015-07-072034-03-12US flag
US9248229No2016-02-022034-03-12US flag
US7955619No2011-06-072028-08-12US flag
US9044402No2015-06-022033-07-01US flag
US9549899No2017-01-242033-07-01US flag
US10314788No2019-06-112028-08-12US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)255 °CMSDS
boiling point (°C)190ºCLide DR. CRC Handbook of Chemistry. 2004
water solubility149 mg/L (at 20 °C)MSDS
logP0.87Agilent Technology. LC/MS/MS Analysis of Opiates.
pKa8.21 (at 25 °C)Agilent Technology. LC/MS/MS Analysis of Opiates.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.2 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.99ALOGPS
logP0.9ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.26ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity80.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.94 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9971
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9882
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.956
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6221
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7451
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7375
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5191
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.647
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8155
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7503
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9634
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9944
Rat acute toxicity2.8989 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8367
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.874
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.42 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00li-8970000000-28acaf307ce4bc5aabf1
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-b9cf42b077ae0fa5b50d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-98125212ed8e73f219e1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-e9f7be236d827a716c1b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-5066e10cd96a2c376676
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kui-0930000000-793deeb91de6d2459cbe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-f775c77035946f746daa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-660ff44516f98e346016
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-22857c8ef81e65ad6bd3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c5194c99a9e7f30ea0c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-1980ff8ab9e654f16fe1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0690000000-efa51d970eaf96d3b982
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-64a693f2f51c03129c94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-49174c3db4b1c1847080
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3cc8784093ef460d3030
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-4bc885836f18b77696f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-4a16648c3e86669f2446
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0690000000-f41b2f804790e9ad8f1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-69393fc6563baf39d91f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-467f39309be5edfa4c01
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-bd9670761ff2a7dafc55

Targets

Details
1. Mu-type opioid receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Yamada H, Shimoyama N, Sora I, Uhl GR, Fukuda Y, Moriya H, Shimoyama M: Morphine can produce analgesia via spinal kappa opioid receptors in the absence of mu opioid receptors. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 14;1083(1):61-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16530171]
  2. Choi HS, Kim CS, Hwang CK, Song KY, Wang W, Qiu Y, Law PY, Wei LN, Loh HH: The opioid ligand binding of human mu-opioid receptor is modulated by novel splice variants of the receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1132-40. Epub 2006 Mar 23. [PubMed:16580639]
  3. Castro RR, Cunha FQ, Silva FS Jr, Rocha FA: A quantitative approach to measure joint pain in experimental osteoarthritis--evidence of a role for nitric oxide. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Aug;14(8):769-76. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16580848]
  4. Johnson EA, Oldfield S, Braksator E, Gonzalez-Cuello A, Couch D, Hall KJ, Mundell SJ, Bailey CP, Kelly E, Henderson G: Agonist-selective mechanisms of mu-opioid receptor desensitization in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):676-85. Epub 2006 May 8. [PubMed:16682505]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  6. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Leventhal L, Silva RM, Rossi GC, Pasternak GW, Bodnar RJ: Morphine-6beta-glucuronide-induced hyperphagia: characterization of opioid action by selective antagonists and antisense mapping in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):538-44. [PubMed:9808678]
  4. Kozak CA, Filie J, Adamson MC, Chen Y, Yu L: Murine chromosomal location of the mu and kappa opioid receptor genes. Genomics. 1994 Jun;21(3):659-61. [PubMed:7959748]
  5. Teodorov E, Modena CC, Sukikara MH, Felicio LF: Preliminary study of the effects of morphine treatment on opioid receptor gene expression in brain structures of the female rat. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1;141(3):1225-31. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16753266]
  6. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Yamada H, Shimoyama N, Sora I, Uhl GR, Fukuda Y, Moriya H, Shimoyama M: Morphine can produce analgesia via spinal kappa opioid receptors in the absence of mu opioid receptors. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 14;1083(1):61-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16530171]
  2. Dortch-Carnes J, Russell KR: Morphine-induced reduction of intraocular pressure and pupil diameter: role of nitric oxide. Pharmacology. 2006;77(1):17-24. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16534251]
  3. Koch T, Wu DF, Yang LQ, Brandenburg LO, Hollt V: Role of phospholipase D2 in the agonist-induced and constitutive endocytosis of G-protein coupled receptors. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):365-72. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539674]
  4. Galeotti N, Stefano GB, Guarna M, Bianchi E, Ghelardini C: Signaling pathway of morphine induced acute thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Pain. 2006 Aug;123(3):294-305. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16650582]
  5. Asensio VJ, Miralles A, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK1/2) by mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists in the rat brain: regulation by chronic morphine and opioid withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jun 6;539(1-2):49-56. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16678156]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Kieffer BL, Gaveriaux-Ruff C: Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout. Prog Neurobiol. 2002 Apr;66(5):285-306. [PubMed:12015197]
  8. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Lipopolysaccharide receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response ...
Gene Name
LY96
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6Y9
Uniprot Name
Lymphocyte antigen 96
Molecular Weight
18545.345 Da
References
  1. Hutchinson MR, Lewis SS, Coats BD, Rezvani N, Zhang Y, Wieseler JL, Somogyi AA, Yin H, Maier SF, Rice KC, Watkins LR: Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal proinflammation and related behavioral consequences. Neuroscience. 2010 May 19;167(3):880-93. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.02.011. Epub 2010 Feb 21. [PubMed:20178837]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Projean D, Morin PE, Tu TM, Ducharme J: Identification of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 as the major cytochrome P450 s responsible for morphine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 2003 Aug;33(8):841-54. doi: 10.1080/0049825031000121608 . [PubMed:12936704]
  2. Daily EB, Aquilante CL: Cytochrome P450 2C8 pharmacogenetics: a review of clinical studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Sep;10(9):1489-510. doi: 10.2217/pgs.09.82. [PubMed:19761371]
Details
2. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Projean D, Morin PE, Tu TM, Ducharme J: Identification of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 as the major cytochrome P450 s responsible for morphine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 2003 Aug;33(8):841-54. doi: 10.1080/0049825031000121608 . [PubMed:12936704]
  2. Takeda S, Ishii Y, Mackenzie PI, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y, Oguri K, Yamada H: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 function by cytochrome P450s in vitro: differential effects of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):2026-7. [PubMed:16204972]
  3. Daily EB, Aquilante CL: Cytochrome P450 2C8 pharmacogenetics: a review of clinical studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Sep;10(9):1489-510. doi: 10.2217/pgs.09.82. [PubMed:19761371]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Coffman BL, Rios GR, King CD, Tephly TR: Human UGT2B7 catalyzes morphine glucuronidation. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Jan;25(1):1-4. [PubMed:9010622]
  2. Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M, Mackenzie PI, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y, Oguri K, Yamada H: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase function by cytochrome P450: evidence for the alteration of UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of morphine by CYP3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;67(3):665-72. Epub 2004 Dec 20. [PubMed:15611481]
  3. Yamada H, Ishii K, Ishii Y, Ieiri I, Nishio S, Morioka T, Oguri K: Formation of highly analgesic morphine-6-glucuronide following physiologic concentration of morphine in human brain. J Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;28(5):395-401. [PubMed:14746343]
  4. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW9
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8
Molecular Weight
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as...
Gene Name
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID
P06133
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4
Molecular Weight
60512.035 Da
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Green MD, King CD, Mojarrabi B, Mackenzie PI, Tephly TR: Glucuronidation of amines and other xenobiotics catalyzed by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A3. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):507-12. [PubMed:9616184]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou R, Perez-Aguilar JM, Meng Q, Saven JG, Liu R: Opioid binding sites in human serum albumin. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jan;114(1):122-8. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318232e922. Epub 2011 Oct 24. [PubMed:22025496]

Transporters

Details
1. P-glycoprotein 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  2. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Morphine Sulfate Oral Tablets [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 25, 2020 15:47

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