Identification

Summary

Glucose is a form of glucose used for caloric supply and the replenishment of fluid in total parenteral nutrition and other therapies as well as for the treatment of hypoglycemic episodes.

Brand Names
Bss Ophthalmic Solution, Citrasate, Clinimix 2.75/5, Clinimix E 2.75/5, Dextroject, Dianeal, H.E.L.P.bicel, Hemosate Ultra, Lactate 1-2-3, Leukotrap, Naturalyte, Nauzene, Normosol-R, Nxstage Pureflow, Olimel, Periolimel, Physioneal 40, Sag-M, Sclerodex, Selectbag One
Generic Name
Dextrose, unspecified form
Commonly known or available as Glucose
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09341
Background

Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) generated during phosynthesis involving water, carbon and sunlight in plants. It is produced in humans via hepatic gluconeogenesis and breakdown of polymeric glucose forms (glycogenolysis). It circulates in human circulation as blood glucose and acts as an essential energy source for many organisms through aerobic or anaerobic respiration and fermentation. It is primarily stored as starch in plants and glycogen in animals to be used in various metabolic processes in the cellular level. Its aldohexose stereoisomer, dextrose or D-glucose, is the most commonly occurring isomer of glucose in nature. L-glucose is a synthesized enantiomer that is used as a low-calorie sweetener and laxative. The unspecified form of glucose is commonly supplied as an injection for nutritional supplementation or metabolic disorders where glucose levels are improperly regulated. Glucose is listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Synonyms
  • Dextrosa
  • Dextrose
  • Dextrose solution
  • Dextrose, unspecified
  • Glucosa
  • Glucose
  • Glucose, liquid
  • Grape sugar
  • Liquid glucose

Pharmacology

Indication

Glucose pharmaceutical formulations (oral tablets, injections) are indicated for caloric supply and carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation. It is also used in metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Blood glucose is an obligatory energy source in humans involved in various cellular activities, and it also acts as a signalling molecule for diverse glucose-sensing molecules and proteins. Glucose undergoes oxidation into carbon dioxide, water and yields energy molecules in the process of glycolysis and subsequent citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose is readily converted into fat in the body which can be used as a source of energy as required. Under a similar conversion into storage of energy, glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Glucose stores are mobilized in a regulated manner, depending on the tissues' metabolic demands. Oral glucose tablets or injections serve to increase the supply of glucose and oral glucose administration is more effective in stimulating insulin secretion because it stimulates the incretin hormones from the gut, which promotes insulin secretion.

Mechanism of action

Glucose supplies most of the energy to all tissues by generating energy molecules ATP and NADH during a series of metabolism reactions called glycolysis. Glycolysis can be divided into 2 main phases where the preparatory phase is initiated by the phosphorylation of glucose by a hexokinase to form glucose 6-phosphate. The addition of the high-energy phosphate group activates glucose for subsequent breakdown in later steps of glycolysis and is the rate-limiting step. Products end up as substrates for following reactions, to ultimately convert C6 glucose molecule into two C3 sugar molecules. These products enter the energy-releasing phase where total of 4ATP and 2NADH molecules are generated per one glucose molecule. The total aerobic metabolism of glucose can produce up to 36 ATP molecules. This energy-producing reactions of glucose is limited to D-glucose as L-glucose cannot be phosphorlyated by hexokinase. Glucose can act as precursors to generate other biomolecules such as vitamin C. It plays a role as a signaling molecule to control glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose can regulate gene transcription, enzyme activity, hormone secretion, and the activity of glucoregulatory neurons. The types, number and kinetics of glucose transporters expressed depends on the tissues and fine-tunes glucose uptake, metabolism, and signal generation in order to preserve cellular and whole body metabolic integrity 1.

Absorption

Polysaccharides can be broken down into smaller units by pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases or intestinal flora. Sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and GLUT2 (SLC2A2) play predominant roles in intestinal transport of glucose into the circulation. SGLT1 is located in the apical membrane of the intestinal wall while GLUT2 is located in the basolateral membrane, but it was proposed that GLUT2 can be recruited into the apical membrane after a high luminal glucose bolus allowing bulk absorption of glucose by facilitated diffusion 3. Oral preparation of glucose reaches the peak concentration within 40 minutes and the intravenous infusions display 100% bioavailability.

Volume of distribution

The mean volume of distribution after intravenous infusion is 10.6L.

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Glucose can undergo aerobic oxidation in conjunction to the synthesis of energy molecules. Glycolysis is the initial stage of glucose metabolism where one glucose molecule is degraded into 2 molecules of pyruvate via substrate-level phosphorylation. These products are transported to the mitochondria where they are further oxidized into oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Route of elimination

Glucose can be renally excreted.

Half-life

The approximate half-life is 14.3 minutes following intravenous infusion. Gut glucose half-life was markedly higher in females (79 ± 2 min) than in males (65 ± 3 min, P < 0.0001) and negatively related to body height (r = -0.481; P < 0.0001).

Clearance

The mean metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR) for the 10 subjects studied at the higher insulin level was 2.27 ± 0.37 ml/kg/min at euglycemia and fell to 1.51±0.21 ml/kg/ at hyperglycemia. The mean MCR for the six subjects studied at the lower insulin level was 1.91 ± 0.31 ml/kg/min at euglyglycemia.

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 value in rats is 25800mg/kg. The administration of glucose infusions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of the serum electrolyte concentrations, over-hydration, congested states, or pulmonary oedema. Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions from oral tablets and intravenous infusions.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Drostanolone propionateThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Drostanolone propionate.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone.
Testosterone cypionateThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone cypionate.
Testosterone enantate benzilic acid hydrazoneThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone enantate benzilic acid hydrazone.
Testosterone enanthateThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone enanthate.
Testosterone propionateThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone propionate.
Testosterone undecanoateThe serum concentration of Dextrose, unspecified form can be decreased when it is combined with Testosterone undecanoate.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
D-glucoseunknown5SL0G7R0OK50-99-7GZCGUPFRVQAUEE-SLPGGIOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
10% Dextrose Injection USPSolution100 mg / mLIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1993-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
10% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution10 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-08-13Not applicableCanada flag
10% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution10 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
100gm Glucose Tolerance DrinkLiquid10 g / 30 mLOralCriterion Sciences1992-12-311999-11-18Canada flag
13.3% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution13.3 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
20% Dextrose Injection USPSolution200 mg / mLIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1991-12-312017-07-15Canada flag
20% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution20 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
33.3% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution33.3 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
40% Dextrose Injection USPSolution40 %IntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1998-11-032017-07-15Canada flag
40% Dextrose Injection, USPSolution40 g / 100 mLIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
5% DEXTROSE IN WATER (1000ML LDPE BOTTLE)SolutionIntravenousPOLYLAB BIOTECH SDN. BHD.2016-03-032019-05-10Malaysia flag
Glutose 15Gel15 g/37.5gOralPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1996-02-011996-02-02US flag
Monoject Insulin Reaction Gel 40%Gel40 %OralSherwood Medical Company1989-12-311999-10-20Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 3.3% Dextrose and 0.3% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (3.3 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (150 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (300 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (150 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (900 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(20 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (150 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(20mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (150 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (200 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-312016-07-15Canada flag
(20mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (150 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (450 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(40 Mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (300 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(40mmol/l) Potassium Chloride In 3.3% Dextrose and 0.3% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (3.3 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (300 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (300 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
(40mmol/l)potassium Chloride In 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection USPDextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Potassium chloride (300 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (450 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
% 0,4 LIDODEKS %5 DEKSTROZ İÇİNDE I.V. İNFÜZYON İÇİN ÇÖZELTİ, 250 ML SETLİDextrose, unspecified form (5 %) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.4 %)Injection, solutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
% 0,4 LIDODEKS %5 DEKSTROZ İÇİNDE I.V. İNFÜZYON İÇİN ÇÖZELTİ, 250 ML SETSİZDextrose, unspecified form (5 %) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.4 %)Injection, solutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
%10 DEKSTROZ VAC.500 ML(SETLI)Dextrose, unspecified form (10 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%10 DEKSTROZ VAC.500 ML(SETSIZ)Dextrose, unspecified form (10 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKS SOL TORBA PVC 500 ML(SETLI)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKS SOL TORBA PVC 500 ML(SETSIZ)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ 500 ML SOLUSYON(SETLI)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ 500 ML SOLUSYON(SETSIZ)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ SUDAKI 250 ML SOLUSYON(SETLI)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ SUDAKI 250 ML SOLUSYON(SETSIZ)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousPOLİFARMA İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ VAC.500 ML(SETLI)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
%20 DEKSTROZ VAC.500 ML(SETSIZ)Dextrose, unspecified form (20 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
IY9XDZ35W2
CAS number
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Thorens B, Mueckler M: Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;298(2):E141-5. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00712.2009. Epub 2009 Dec 15. [Article]
  2. Ferraris RP: Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Biochem J. 2001 Dec 1;360(Pt 2):265-76. [Article]
  3. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [Article]
  4. Deng D, Sun P, Yan C, Ke M, Jiang X, Xiong L, Ren W, Hirata K, Yamamoto M, Fan S, Yan N: Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):391-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14655. Epub 2015 Jul 15. [Article]
  5. Jiang G, Zhang BB: Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;284(4):E671-8. [Article]
  6. Anderwald C, Gastaldelli A, Tura A, Krebs M, Promintzer-Schifferl M, Kautzky-Willer A, Stadler M, DeFronzo RA, Pacini G, Bischof MG: Mechanism and effects of glucose absorption during an oral glucose tolerance test among females and males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):515-24. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1398. Epub 2010 Dec 8. [Article]
  7. Kouider S, Kolb FE, Lippmann R: [Behavior of various blood constituents (glucose, fructose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, inorganic phosphate) and the half-life of monosaccharides in plasma after i.v infusion of glucose, fructose, galactose and invert sugar solutions in ruminants. 3. Studies in sheep]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):715-25. [Article]
  8. JOKIPII SG, TURPEINEN O: Kinetics of elimination of glucose from the blood during and after a continuous intravenous injection. J Clin Invest. 1954 Mar;33(3):452-8. [Article]
  9. Revers RR, Kolterman OG, Olefsky JM: Relationship between serum glucose level and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1983 Jul;32(7):627-32. [Article]
  10. 30. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 372-377). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  11. 16. (2000). In Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. [ISBN:0-7167-3136-3]
  12. Baxter Health GLUCOSE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION BP Product information [Link]
  13. Glucose injection (Viaflex bag) Product information [Link]
PubChem Substance
310265216
Wikipedia
Glucose
MSDS
Download (20.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCritically Ill Patients / Starvation1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4CompletedPreventionLung Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Disorder of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Echocardiography Assessment1
4CompletedTreatmentDomperidone Overdose / Feeding Intolerance / Gastric Retention / Premature Births1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPeritoneal Membrane Disorder / Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous100 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous10 g / 100 mL
SolutionIntravenous13.3 g / 100 mL
SolutionIntravenous200 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous20 g / 100 mL
SolutionIntravenous33.3 g / 100 mL
SolutionIntravenous40 %
SolutionIntravenous40 g / 100 mL
SolutionIntravenous50 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous5 g / 100 mL
LiquidSubarachnoid
SolutionIntravenous500 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous50 g / 100 mL
LiquidOral5 g / 30 mL
SolutionIntravenous70 g / 100 mL
LiquidOral7.5 g / 30 mL
SolutionHemodialysis
Granule, for solutionOral
Powder, for solutionIntraocular
SolutionUnknown
SolutionExtracorporeal
SolutionExtracorporeal0.8 g/100ml
SolutionOther
TabletOral5 g
SolutionIntraperitoneal
Kit; solutionIntraocular
LiquidOphthalmic
SolutionIntraspinal
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
Injection, solutionParenteral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionHemodialysis
SolutionIntravenous250 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous50 g
SolutionIntravenous10 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous5 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous70 g/100mL
SolutionIrrigation
SolutionIntravenous333 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous5 g/100ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous13.3 g / 100 mL
LiquidIntravenous250 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous50 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous500 mg / mL
LiquidIntravenous50 %
SolutionIntravenous50 % w/v
SolutionIntravenous400 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous700 mg / mL
Powder, for solutionHemodialysis173.2 g / pck
Powder, for solutionHemodialysis207.9 g / pck
PowderHemodialysis182.1 g / pck
PowderHemodialysis222.7 g / bottle
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionIntravenous4.21 g/1000ml
SolutionParenteral
SolutionOral
Powder, for solutionOral99.46 g
SolutionIntravenous0.5 g
InjectionParenteral
SolutionIntravenous5 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous
SolutionParenteral
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral
Injection, solutionParenteral
GelOphthalmic35 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral10 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral5 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral30 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral20 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral50 %
LiquidOral100 g / 300 mL
LiquidOral75 g / 300 mL
GelOral15 g/37.5g
LiquidOral
SolutionIntravenous20 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous30 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous40 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous50 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous60 g/100mL
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntraperitoneal
SolutionHemodialysis; Intraperitoneal
KitIntravenous
Powder, for solutionOral24.85 g
GelOral40 %
Injection, solutionHemodialysis; Intravenous
SolutionOral750 mg/1
SyrupOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Kit; solutionIntraocular; Irrigation
Powder, for solutionOral
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous3.57 g/70mL
Injection, emulsion; injection, solutionIntravenous
EmulsionParenteral
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous50 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous
DoucheVaginal
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
LiquidOral10 g / 30 mL
LiquidIntraspinal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)146MSDS
water solubilitySoluble MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Mannokinase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
HK1
Uniprot ID
P19367
Uniprot Name
Hexokinase-1
Molecular Weight
102485.1 Da
References
  1. Rose IA, O'Connell EL, Litwin S: Determination of the rate of hexokinase-glucose dissociation by the isotope-trapping method. J Biol Chem. 1974 Aug 25;249(16):5163-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Glucose binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when gluco...
Gene Name
GCK
Uniprot ID
P35557
Uniprot Name
Glucokinase
Molecular Weight
52191.07 Da
References
  1. Matschinsky FM: Glucokinase as glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes. Diabetes. 1990 Jun;39(6):647-52. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including b...
Gene Name
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID
P11166
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1
Molecular Weight
54083.325 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Hexose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta c...
Gene Name
SLC2A2
Uniprot ID
P11168
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2
Molecular Weight
57488.955 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deox...
Gene Name
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID
P11169
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3
Molecular Weight
53923.785 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID
P14672
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4
Molecular Weight
54786.79 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter; binds cytochalasin B with low affinity.
Gene Name
SLC2A6
Uniprot ID
Q9UGQ3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 6
Molecular Weight
54538.55 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity transporter for glucose and fructose Does not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and xylose.
Gene Name
SLC2A7
Uniprot ID
Q6PXP3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 7
Molecular Weight
55726.915 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. Binds cytochalasin B in a glucose-inhibitable manner. Seems to be a dual-specific sugar transporter as it is inhibitable by fructose (By similari...
Gene Name
SLC2A8
Uniprot ID
Q9NY64
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 8
Molecular Weight
50818.54 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Transport urate and fructose. May have a role in the urate reabsorption by proximal tubules. Also transports glucose at low rate.
Gene Name
SLC2A9
Uniprot ID
Q9NRM0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9
Molecular Weight
58701.205 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A10
Uniprot ID
O95528
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10
Molecular Weight
56910.77 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A11
Uniprot ID
Q9BYW1
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11
Molecular Weight
53702.055 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A12
Uniprot ID
Q8TD20
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 12
Molecular Weight
66965.7 Da
References
  1. Mueckler M, Thorens B: The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):121-38. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Actively transports glucose into cells by Na(+) cotransport with a Na(+) to glucose coupling ratio of 2:1. Efficient substrate transport in mammalian kidney is provided by the concerted action of a...
Gene Name
SLC5A1
Uniprot ID
P13866
Uniprot Name
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1
Molecular Weight
73497.275 Da
References
  1. Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014. [Article]

Drug created at November 27, 2015 20:19 / Updated at December 01, 2021 01:05