Transforming growth factor beta-1


Transforming growth factor beta-1
  • TGF-beta-1
  • TGFB
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021834|Transforming growth factor beta-1
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
GO Classification
antigen binding / cytokine activity / enzyme binding / glycoprotein binding / type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding / type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding / type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
active induction of host immune response by virus / adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains / aging / ATP biosynthetic process / blood coagulation / branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching / cell cycle arrest / cell development / cell growth / cell-cell junction organization / cellular calcium ion homeostasis / cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus / cellular response to organic cyclic compound / cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus / chondrocyte differentiation / common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation / connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing / defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction / digestive tract development / endoderm development / epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway / epithelial to mesenchymal transition / evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus / extracellular matrix assembly / extracellular matrix organization / extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway / face morphogenesis / female pregnancy / frontal suture morphogenesis / germ cell migration / hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation / hyaluronan catabolic process / inflammatory response / inner ear development / lens fiber cell differentiation / lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway / lymph node development / macrophage derived foam cell differentiation / mammary gland branching involved in thelarche / MAPK cascade / mitotic cell cycle checkpoint / modulation by virus of host morphology or physiology / mononuclear cell proliferation / myelination / myeloid dendritic cell differentiation / negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration / negative regulation of cell cycle / negative regulation of cell differentiation / negative regulation of cell growth / negative regulation of cell proliferation / negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion / negative regulation of DNA replication / negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation / negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly / negative regulation of fat cell differentiation / negative regulation of gene expression / negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA / negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process / negative regulation of interleukin-17 production / negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production / negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle / negative regulation of myoblast differentiation / negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation / negative regulation of ossification / negative regulation of phagocytosis / negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane / negative regulation of protein phosphorylation / negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol / negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development / negative regulation of T cell proliferation / negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter / negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated / negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway / Notch signaling pathway / oligodendrocyte development / organ regeneration / ossification involved in bone remodeling / pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation / phosphate-containing compound metabolic process / platelet activation / platelet degranulation / positive regulation of apoptotic process / positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration / positive regulation of bone mineralization / positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis / positive regulation of cell cycle arrest / positive regulation of cell migration / positive regulation of cell proliferation / positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process / positive regulation of chemotaxis / positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process / positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation / positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition / positive regulation of exit from mitosis / positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly / positive regulation of fibroblast migration / positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation / positive regulation of gene expression / positive regulation of histone acetylation / positive regulation of histone deacetylation / positive regulation of interleukin-17 production / positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes / positive regulation of MAP kinase activity / positive regulation of NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity / positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity / positive regulation of odontogenesis / positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation / positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation / positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation / positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation / positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity / positive regulation of protein complex assembly / positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation / positive regulation of protein import into nucleus / positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling / positive regulation of protein phosphorylation / positive regulation of protein secretion / positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus / positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation / positive regulation of superoxide anion generation / positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter / positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding / positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated / positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production / positive regulation of vascular permeability / protein export from nucleus / protein import into nucleus, translocation / protein kinase B signaling / protein phosphorylation / receptor catabolic process / regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization / regulation of apoptotic process / regulation of binding / regulation of blood vessel remodeling / regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis / regulation of cartilage development / regulation of cell migration / regulation of DNA binding / regulation of interleukin-23 production / regulation of protein import into nucleus / regulation of sodium ion transport / regulation of striated muscle tissue development / regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway / regulatory T cell differentiation / response to cholesterol / response to drug / response to estradiol / response to glucose / response to hypoxia / response to laminar fluid shear stress / response to progesterone / response to radiation / response to vitamin D / response to wounding / salivary gland morphogenesis / SMAD protein complex assembly / SMAD protein import into nucleus / SMAD protein signal transduction / T cell homeostasis / tolerance induction to self antigen / transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway / ureteric bud development / viral life cycle
axon / blood microparticle / cell surface / cytoplasm / extracellular region / extracellular space / Golgi lumen / neuronal cell body / nucleus / plasma membrane / platelet alpha granule lumen / proteinaceous extracellular matrix
General Function
Type iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021835|Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1)
Chromosome Location
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDP01137
UniProtKB Entry NameTGFB1_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID1212989
GenBank Gene IDX05839
GenAtlas IDTGFB1
General References
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00070Hyaluronidase (ovine)approved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06205Hyaluronidase (human recombinant)approved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB10770Foreskin fibroblast (neonatal)approvedunknownagonistDetails
DB10772Foreskin keratinocyte (neonatal)approvedyesagonistDetails