Growth Substances

Growth Substances
Accession Number

Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.

DrugDrug Description
BecaplerminA recombinant form of human platelet-derived growth factor used to treat ulcers due to diabetic neuropathy in the lower extremities when there is adequate blood supply to the area.
CyanocobalaminA vitamin available in many formulations to correct vitamin B12 deficiency.
BiotinA B-complex vitamin found in many multivitamin products.
Ascorbic acidA vitamin used to correct vitamin C deficiency and to increase the intestinal absorption of iron.
CalcitriolAn active metabolite of vitamin D that is used to treat hyperparathyroidism and is also used in dialysis patients to combat hypocalcemia.
ThiamineA vitamin used to correct vitamin B1 deficiency.
ErgocalciferolA vitamin found in many supplement products.
Vitamin AA vitamin important for retinal function that is used clinically to correct vitamin A deficiency.
Vitamin EAn antioxidant vitamin used in many skin creams and multivitamin preparations.
CholecalciferolA form of Vitamin D used in the treatment of specific medical conditions such as refractory rickets, hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia, as well as osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease.
LenalidomideA thalidomide derivative used to treat multiple myeloma and anemia in low to intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
NiacinA B vitamin used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and pellagra.
PhylloquinoneA fat soluble vitamin used to treat hemorrhagic conditions in infants and coumarin overdoses.
RanibizumabA recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody and VEGF-A antagonist used for the management of macular edema after retinal vein occlusion, age-related macular degeneration (wet), and diabetic macular edema.
IodineAn ingredient of nutritional supplements that is also used for disinfection.
PrezatideCommonly used in cosmetic products for the skin and hair .
AvilamycinNot Annotated
RactopamineNot Annotated
MecaserminA recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 used for the long-term treatment of growth failure in pediatric patients with primary IGF-1 deficiency or with growth hormone gene deletion due to the development of neutralizing antibodies to GH.
TesamorelinA growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog used to reduce excessive abdominal fat in HIV patients who have developed lipodystrophy.
Folic acidA nutrient used to treat megaloblastic anemia and is found in many supplements.
ThalidomideA medication used to treat cancers, particularly newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and erythema nodosum leprosum.
SunitinibA receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
FumagillinNot Available
AlvocidibInvestigated for use/treatment in esophageal cancer, leukemia (lymphoid), lung cancer, liver cancer, and lymphoma (unspecified).
HalofuginoneFor the treatment of scleroderma, cancer, and restenosis.
TetrathiomolybdateInvestigated for use/treatment in liver disease and pulmonary fibrosis.
OglufanideInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
EndostatinInvestigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified), macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
SemaxanibInvestigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer and lung cancer.
SqualamineInvestigated for use/treatment in ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and macular degeneration.
VolociximabInvestigated for use/treatment in solid tumors, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer.
Gibberellic acidNot Available
Indoleacetic acidNot Available
TNP-470O-(chloroacetylcarbamoyl)fumagillol (TNP-470) has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections, Sarcoma, Kaposi, and Pancreatic Neoplasms.
AfliberceptA vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor used to treat Neovascular (Wet) Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), various types of macular edema and diabetic retinopathy, and metastatic colorectal cancer
PomalidomideA thalidomide analogue used in combination with dexamethasone to treat patients with multiple myeloma.
KinetinKinetin is a cytokinin which are plant hormones promotes cell division and plant growth. It was shown to naturally exist in DNA of organisms including humans and various plants. While...
ZeatinAn aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
RoquinimexRoquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions. As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone...
EndostarEndostar is under investigation for the treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Endostar has been investigated for the treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
TrebananibTrebananib is under investigation for the treatment of Ovarian Cancer, Peritoneal Cancer, and Fallopian Tube Cancer. Trebananib has been investigated for the treatment of Cancer, Oncology, Carcinoma, Metastases, and Colon...
AnecortaveAnecortave is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00691717 (Anecortave Acetate Safety in Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension).
BeloranibBeloranib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Obesity, Over-weight, Type 2 Diabetes, Craniopharyngioma, and Hypothalamic Injury, among others.
2'-fluoro-5-ethylarabinosyluracil2'-fluoro-5-ethylarabinosyluracil (FAU) has been used in trials studying the treatment of Small Intestine Lymphoma, Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma, Waldenström Macroglobulinemia, Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma,...
XanthohumolXanthohumol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01367431 (Xanthohumol and Metabolic Syndrome).
Edodekin alfaEdodekin alfa is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01468896 (Cetuximab and Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck That Is Recurrent, Metastatic, or...
Abscisic AcidNot Annotated
PACAP38Not Available
FaricimabAn IgG1-derived bispecific antibody against VEGF-A and Ang-2 for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.
Ammonium tetrathiomolybdateNot Annotated
PralmorelinNot Annotated
RamucirumabAn antineoplastic agent and direct VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) antagonist that blocks the binding of natural VEGF ligands, which are secreted by solid tumors to promote angiogenesis and enhance tumor blood supply.
Bleomycin A2Bleomycin A2 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00026208 (Combination Chemotherapy Plus Low-dose Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I or Stage IIA Hodgkin's Lymphoma).
Drugs & Drug Targets
BecaplerminPlatelet-derived growth factor receptor betatarget
BecaplerminPlatelet-derived growth factor receptor alphatarget
CyanocobalaminMethionine synthase reductasetarget
CyanocobalaminMethylmalonic aciduria type A protein, mitochondrialtarget
CyanocobalaminMethylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrialtarget
CyanocobalaminMethylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C proteintarget
CyanocobalaminMethionine synthasetarget
CyanocobalaminMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductasetarget
CyanocobalaminProtein amnionlesstransporter
CyanocobalaminCob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, mitochondrialenzyme
CyanocobalaminGastric intrinsic factortransporter
CyanocobalaminBifunctional adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis protein CobUenzyme
CyanocobalaminLow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2transporter
CyanocobalaminMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
CyanocobalaminPancreatic proteasesenzyme
BiotinPropionyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrialtarget
BiotinBiotin--protein ligasetarget
BiotinMethylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrialtarget
BiotinAcetyl-CoA carboxylase 2target
BiotinMethylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrialtarget
BiotinPyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrialtarget
BiotinPropionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrialtarget
BiotinAcetyl-CoA carboxylase 1target
BiotinCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
BiotinSodium-dependent multivitamin transportertransporter
BiotinSodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
Ascorbic acidProlyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1target
Ascorbic acidProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1target
Ascorbic acidHyaluronate lyasetarget
Ascorbic acidDNAtarget
Ascorbic acidXylose isomerasetarget
Ascorbic acidProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2target
Ascorbic acidPhytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomaltarget
Ascorbic acidProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3target
Ascorbic acidGamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenasetarget
Ascorbic acidDopamine beta-hydroxylasetarget
Ascorbic acidPeptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenasetarget
Ascorbic acidProlyl 3-hydroxylase 1target
Ascorbic acid2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2target
Ascorbic acidAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2target
Ascorbic acidProlyl 3-hydroxylase 2target
Ascorbic acidProlyl 3-hydroxylase 3target
Ascorbic acid2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1target
Ascorbic acidEgl nine homolog 2target
Ascorbic acidAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3target
Ascorbic acidLysine-specific demethylase 5Dtarget
Ascorbic acidEgl nine homolog 1target
Ascorbic acidEgl nine homolog 3target
Ascorbic acidTrimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrialtarget
Ascorbic acidTransmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylasetarget
Ascorbic acidSolute carrier family 23 member 1transporter
Ascorbic acidSolute carrier family 23 member 2transporter
Ascorbic acidSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1transporter
Ascorbic acidSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3transporter
Ascorbic acidSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4transporter
Ascorbic acidSerum albumincarrier
Ascorbic acidThioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmicenzyme
CalcitriolVitamin D3 receptortarget
Calcitriol1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrialenzyme
CalcitriolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CalcitriolHomeobox protein Hox-A10target
CalcitriolVitamin D-binding proteincarrier
ThiamineThiamin pyrophosphokinase 1target
ThiamineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
ThiamineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
ThiamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
ThiamineCytochrome P450 4B1enzyme
ThiamineThiamine transporter 1transporter
ThiamineThiamine transporter 2transporter
ThiamineThiamin pyrophosphokinase 1enzyme
ThiamineEctonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5enzyme
ThiamineSerum albumincarrier
ErgocalciferolVitamin D3 receptortarget
Ergocalciferol1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrialenzyme
Ergocalciferol25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrialenzyme
ErgocalciferolSterol 26-hydroxylase, mitochondrialenzyme
ErgocalciferolVitamin D 25-hydroxylaseenzyme
ErgocalciferolVitamin D-binding proteincarrier
ErgocalciferolVoltage-dependent calcium channeltarget
ErgocalciferolRibulose-phosphate 3-epimeraseenzyme
ErgocalciferolCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrialenzyme
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 12target
Vitamin A11-cis retinol dehydrogenasetarget
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 13target
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 5carrier
Vitamin ARetinoid-binding protein 7carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 4carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 2carrier
Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 2target
Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 1target
Vitamin ALecithin retinol acyltransferasetarget
Vitamin AShort-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3target
Vitamin AAldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3target
Vitamin AAll-trans-retinol 13,14-reductasetarget
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 11target
Vitamin ADehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4target
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 14target
Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 8target
Vitamin ACytochrome P450 26A1enzyme
Vitamin AApolipoprotein Dtarget
Vitamin AProstaglandin-H2 D-isomerasetarget
Vitamin ASerum albumincarrier
Vitamin ARetinaldehyde-binding protein 1carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 3carrier
Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 1carrier
Vitamin AReceptor for retinol uptake STRA6transporter
Vitamin ESEC14-like protein 4target
Vitamin ESEC14-like protein 3target
Vitamin ESEC14-like protein 2target
Vitamin ENuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
Vitamin EProtein kinase C beta typetarget
Vitamin EArachidonate 5-lipoxygenasetarget
Vitamin EProtein kinase C alpha typetarget
Vitamin EDiacylglycerol kinase alphatarget
Vitamin ESerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoformtarget
Vitamin ESerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoformtarget
Vitamin EAlpha-tocopherol transfer proteincarrier
Vitamin EGlutathione S-transferase A2enzyme
Vitamin EGlutathione S-transferase Penzyme
Vitamin EGlutathione S-transferase omega-1enzyme
Vitamin EGlutathione S-transferase Mu 3enzyme
Vitamin EGlutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunitenzyme
Vitamin ENAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1enzyme
Vitamin EHeme oxygenase 1enzyme
Vitamin ESuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]enzyme
Vitamin EScavenger receptor class B member 1transporter
Vitamin EATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1transporter
Vitamin ENiemann-Pick C1-like protein 1transporter
Vitamin EATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1transporter
Vitamin ESEC14-like protein 2carrier
Vitamin ESEC14-like protein 3carrier
Vitamin EPhospholipid transfer proteincarrier
Vitamin ECytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CholecalciferolVitamin D-binding proteincarrier
CholecalciferolCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrialenzyme
CholecalciferolVitamin D 25-hydroxylaseenzyme
CholecalciferolSterol 26-hydroxylase, mitochondrialenzyme
CholecalciferolCytochrome P450 2J2enzyme
CholecalciferolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CholecalciferolVitamin D3 receptortarget
CholecalciferolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
CholecalciferolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
LenalidomideProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
LenalidomideTumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11target
LenalidomideProtein cereblontarget
LenalidomideP-glycoprotein 1transporter
NiacinHydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2target
NiacinNicotinamide N-methyltransferasetarget
NiacinNicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase [carboxylating]target
NiacinHydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3target
NiacinSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
NiacinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
NiacinMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
NiacinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
NiacinSodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
NiacinMonocarboxylate transporter 4transporter
NiacinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
NiacinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
NiacinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
PhylloquinoneVitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylasetarget
PhylloquinoneLeukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 1enzyme
PhylloquinoneUbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein 1enzyme
PhylloquinoneVitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1enzyme
RanibizumabVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
IodineSodium/iodide cotransportertransporter
IodineSerum albumincarrier
IodineThyroid peroxidaseenzyme
IodineSodium/iodide cotransportertarget
IodineMicrobial proteinstarget
RactopamineEstrogen receptor alphatarget
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptortarget
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3target
MecaserminInsulin receptortarget
MecaserminCation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptortarget
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3carrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunitcarrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1carrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2carrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4carrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5carrier
MecaserminInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6carrier
TesamorelinGrowth hormone-releasing hormone receptortarget
Folic acidFolate receptor gammatarget
Folic acidFolate receptor betatarget
Folic acidMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseenzyme
Folic acidMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
Folic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
Folic acidCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
Folic acidATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
Folic acidATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
Folic acidProton-coupled folate transportertransporter
Folic acidMitochondrial folate transporter/carriertransporter
Folic acidGamma-glutamyl hydrolaseenzyme
Folic acidFolate receptor alphatarget
Folic acidDihydrofolate reductaseenzyme
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
ThalidomideProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
ThalidomideProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ThalidomideProtein cereblontarget
Thalidomidealpha1-acid glycoproteintarget
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
ThalidomideCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
SunitinibPlatelet-derived growth factor receptor betatarget
SunitinibVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1target
SunitinibVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2target
SunitinibVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3target
SunitinibMast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kittarget
SunitinibReceptor-type tyrosine-protein kinase FLT3target
SunitinibMacrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptortarget
SunitinibPlatelet-derived growth factor receptor alphatarget
SunitinibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
SunitinibCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
SunitinibCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
SunitinibMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
SunitinibP-glycoprotein 1transporter
SunitinibCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
SunitinibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
SunitinibHepatocyte growth factor receptortarget
FumagillinMethionine aminopeptidase 2target
AlvocidibGlycogen phosphorylase, muscle formtarget
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 7target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 5target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 9target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 1target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 6target
AlvocidibEpidermal growth factor receptortarget
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 4target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 8target
AlvocidibCyclin-dependent kinase 2target
AlvocidibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
AlvocidibGlycogen phosphorylase, brain formtarget
AlvocidibGlycogen phosphorylase, liver formtarget
AlvocidibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
HalofuginoneCollagen alpha-1(I) chaintarget
Halofuginone72 kDa type IV collagenasetarget
TetrathiomolybdateAmyloid beta A4 proteintarget
Endostatin72 kDa type IV collagenasetarget
EndostatinMatrix metalloproteinase-9target
EndostatinCollagenase 3target
EndostatinFocal adhesion kinase 1target
EndostatinCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
SemaxanibVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2target
SemaxanibProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
Gibberellic acidArylacetamide deacetylase-like 2target
Indoleacetic acidGroup IIE secretory phospholipase A2target
Indoleacetic acidS-phase kinase-associated protein 1target
Indoleacetic acidKynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1target
TNP-470Methionine aminopeptidase 2target
AfliberceptVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
AfliberceptPlacenta growth factortarget
AfliberceptVascular endothelial growth factor Btarget
PomalidomideCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PomalidomideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PomalidomideP-glycoprotein 1transporter
PomalidomideProtein cereblontarget
PomalidomideTumor necrosis factortarget
PomalidomideProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
FaricimabVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
RamucirumabVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2target