Identification

Name
Ascorbic acid
Commonly known or available as Vitamin C
Accession Number
DB00126
Description

A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 176.1241
Monoisotopic: 176.032087988
Chemical Formula
C6H8O6
Synonyms
  • acide ascorbique
  • ácido ascórbico
  • Acidum ascorbicum
  • acidum ascorbinicum
  • Ascorbate
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Ascorbinsäure
  • L-(+)-ascorbic acid
  • L-Ascorbate
  • L-Ascorbic Acid
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamina C
External IDs
  • E 300
  • E-300
  • E300
  • FEMA NO. 2109
  • INS NO.300
  • INS-300
  • NSC-218455
  • NSC-33832

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin indicated for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, as ascorbic acid deficiency results in scurvy. Collagenous structures are primarily affected, and lesions develop in bones and blood vessels. Administration of ascorbic acid completely reverses the symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency.

Mechanism of action

In humans, an exogenous source of ascorbic acid is required for collagen formation and tissue repair by acting as a cofactor in the posttranslational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid in the body. These two forms of the vitamin are believed to be important in oxidation-reduction reactions. The vitamin is involved in tyrosine metabolism, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration.

TargetActionsOrganism
UHyaluronate lyase
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
UDNA
cleavage
Humans
UXylose isomerase
substrate
Streptomyces rubiginosus
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2
cofactor
Humans
UPhytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal
cofactor
Humans
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
cofactor
Humans
UGamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
cofactor
Humans
UDopamine beta-hydroxylase
cofactor
Humans
UPeptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
cofactor
Humans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 1
cofactor
Humans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 2
cofactor
Humans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 3
cofactor
Humans
UProlyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
cofactor
Humans
U2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1
cofactor
Humans
U2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2
cofactor
Humans
UAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2
activator
Humans
UAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3
activator
Humans
ULysine-specific demethylase 5D
cofactor
Humans
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
cofactor
Humans
UTrimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial
cofactor
Humans
UTransmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase
cofactor
Humans
UEgl nine homolog 1
chaperone
Humans
UEgl nine homolog 2
chaperone
Humans
UEgl nine homolog 3
chaperone
Humans
Absorption

70% to 90%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

25%

Metabolism

Hepatic. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidised (by removal of the hydrogen from the enediol group of ascorbic acid) to dehydroascorbic acid. The two forms found in body fluids are physiologically active. Some ascorbic acid is metabolized to inactive compounds including ascorbic acid-2-sulfate and oxalic acid.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

16 days (3.4 hours in people who have excess levels of vitamin C)

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolic
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
The Oncogenic Action of FumarateDisease
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolic
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolic
The Oncogenic Action of SuccinateDisease
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Refsum DiseaseDisease
Tyrosinemia, Transient, of the NewbornDisease
Tyrosine Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Monoamine Oxidase-A Deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Aluminum hydroxideAscorbic acid can cause an increase in the absorption of Aluminum hydroxide resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ascorbic acid.
BenzphetamineThe serum concentration of Benzphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ascorbic acid.
BleomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Bleomycin can be decreased when used in combination with Ascorbic acid.
BortezomibThe therapeutic efficacy of Bortezomib can be decreased when used in combination with Ascorbic acid.
ChlorpropamideAscorbic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Chlorpropamide which could result in a higher serum level.
Conjugated estrogensThe serum concentration of Ascorbic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Conjugated estrogens.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be decreased when it is combined with Ascorbic acid.
DeferoxamineThe risk or severity of Cardiovascular Impairment can be increased when Ascorbic acid is combined with Deferoxamine.
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ascorbic acid.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Avoid multivalent ions. Do not infuse with elemental compounds that can be reduced, such as copper.

Products

Product Images
International/Other Brands
Ascoltin / Ascorbicap
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AscorInjection500 mg/1mLIntravenousMcGuff Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2018-01-15Not applicableUS flag
Ascor L 500Solution500 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMcguff Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-09-11Not applicableCanada flag
Ascor L 500Injection, solution25 g/50mLIntravenousMcGuff Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-10-21Not applicableUS flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFisiopharma Srl2017-10-062018-06-18US flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1989-12-152008-03-28US flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntravenousRemedy Repack2015-10-092015-11-11US flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFisiopharma Srl2017-10-062017-10-06US flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFlon Laboratories Llc2017-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Therapeutic Medicines Inc.2008-03-012010-12-30US flag
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMylan Institutional LLC1999-06-012010-02-12US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AcerotabTabletOralFrega Inc.1979-12-312008-02-13Canada flag
Acti-scorb 1000 Caplet 1000mgTabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Acti-scorb 500 Caplet 500mgTabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
All Natural Source Juicy Orange Vitamin CTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1998-06-292009-09-28Canada flag
Aromacura Shower FilterLiquid39 g/70gTopicalValue Added Technology co., Ltd2019-01-012019-02-01US flag
Aromacura Shower FilterLiquid39 g/100gTopicalValue Added Technology co., Ltd2019-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Ascorbic 500 Tab 500mgTabletOralPharmadex Laboratories Inc.1993-12-311999-08-28Canada flag
Ascorbic Acid 500mgTabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada flag
Ascorbic Acid Cap 500mgCapsuleOralThorne Research Inc.1984-12-312000-09-18Canada flag
Ascorbic Acid PowderPowderOralAlbi Naturals1981-12-312008-07-17Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsAscorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 PlusAscorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit) + Vitamin E (20 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsAscorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
A & C PowderAscorbic acid (7 mg) + Vitamin A (930 unit)Powder, for solutionOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Aces Formula/formule A A SAscorbic acid (250 mg) + Beta carotene (3333 unit) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Vitamin E (400 unit)CapsuleOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Acetabolan III Vitamin and Mineral SupplementAscorbic acid (250.0 mg) + Magnesium (112.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.63 mg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2003-12-052007-07-18Canada flag
Acetabolan-II Vitamin and Mineral SupplementAscorbic acid (200 mg) + Magnesium (90 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.1 mg) + Zinc (6 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2000-11-202005-06-21Canada flag
Acetaminophen, Ascorbic acid, Chlorpheniramine MaleateAscorbic acid (50 mg/12000mg) + Acetaminophen (160 mg/12000mg) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (1 mg/12000mg)Powder, for solutionOralContract Pharmacal Corp.2015-01-19Not applicableUS flag
Adc ComprimesAscorbic acid (250 mg) + Vitamin A acetate (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (200 unit)TabletOralBio Vita1990-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Adrenergy TabletsAscorbic acid (150 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (80 mg) + Pantothenic acid (60 mg) + Zinc (5 mg)TabletOralMorter HealthsystemNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Active FEAscorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Active OBAscorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31US flag
Aromacura Shower FilterAscorbic acid (39 g/70g)LiquidTopicalValue Added Technology co., Ltd2019-01-012019-02-01US flag
Aromacura Shower FilterAscorbic acid (39 g/100g)LiquidTopicalValue Added Technology co., Ltd2019-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Aronamin GoldAscorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Fursultiamine (50 mg/1) + Hydroxocobalamin acetate (5.22 ug/1) + Riboflavin tetrabutyrate (2.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (20 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralOASIS TRADING2018-11-20Not applicableUS flag
Ascorbic AcidAscorbic acid (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Therapeutic Medicines Inc.2008-03-012010-12-30US flag
Ascorbic AcidAscorbic acid (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousRaw Materials International Overseas Llc2015-07-02Not applicableUS flag
Ascorbic AcidAscorbic acid (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousRemedy Repack2015-10-092015-11-11US flag
Ascorbic AcidAscorbic acid (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1989-12-152008-03-28US flag
Ascorbic AcidAscorbic acid (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMylan Institutional LLC1999-06-012022-03-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
G01AD03 — Ascorbic acidA11GA01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c)A11GB01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c) and calciumS01XA15 — Ascorbic acid
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as butenolides. These are dihydrofurans with a carbonyl group at the C2 carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Dihydrofurans
Sub Class
Furanones
Direct Parent
Butenolides
Alternative Parents
Vinylogous acids / Enoate esters / Secondary alcohols / Lactones / Enediols / 1,2-diols / Oxacyclic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Primary alcohols / Organic oxides
show 2 more
Substituents
1,2-diol / 2-furanone / Alcohol / Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Enediol / Enoate ester
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
ascorbic acid (CHEBI:29073) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00072)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
PQ6CK8PD0R
CAS number
50-81-7
InChI Key
CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[[email protected]@H](O)CO

References

Synthesis Reference

Lewis D. Morse, Paul A. Hammes, "Beverage containing stabilized vitamin C and iron and method of making same." U.S. Patent US3958017, issued October, 1972.

US3958017
General References
  1. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. [PubMed:12569111]
  2. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. [PubMed:8144521]
  3. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. [PubMed:3015170]
  4. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. [PubMed:11458272]
  5. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. [PubMed:5477017]
  6. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. [PubMed:14642847]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Ascor Ascorbic Acid Intravenous Injection [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000044
KEGG Drug
D00018
KEGG Compound
C00072
PubChem Compound
54670067
PubChem Substance
46505070
ChemSpider
10189562
BindingDB
50090256
RxNav
1151
ChEBI
29073
ChEMBL
CHEMBL196
ZINC
ZINC000100006770
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000259
PharmGKB
PA451898
PDBe Ligand
ASC
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vitamin_C
AHFS Codes
  • 88:12.00 — Vitamin C
PDB Entries
1e71 / 1e72 / 1e73 / 1f9g / 1oaf / 1xid / 2x08 / 2yld / 2ylg / 3eka
show 28 more
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableAcute Rhinitis / Flu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFunctional Constipation / Irritable Bowel Syndrome Characterized by Constipation1
4CompletedDiagnosticColon Adenomas / Colon Lesion / Colon Polyps1
4CompletedDiagnosticColonoscopy Preparation1
4CompletedOtherCleansing Quality of the Colon1
4CompletedPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4CompletedPreventionInflammatory Reaction / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Asphyxia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • American Therapeutics Medicines Inc.
  • Bergen Brunswig
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Chain Drug
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Hainan Poly Pharm Co. Ltd.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mason Distributors
  • McGuff Co. Inc.
  • Medicine Shop
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Miller Pharmacal
  • Particle Dynamics Co.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Procter & Gamble
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Torrance Co.
  • Walgreen Co.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral250 mg
CapsuleOral200 mg
CapsuleOral20 mg
Syrup50 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg/5ml
Tablet, chewableOral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5000 IU
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/5ml
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg
LiquidTopical39 g/70g
LiquidTopical39 g/100g
InjectionIntravenous500 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 g/50mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg
Injection
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/1mL
Tablet100 mg
Syrup
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
Injection500 mg/5ml
Powder, for solutionOral1200 mg
Powder, for solutionOral900 mg
PowderOral600 mg
PowderOral900 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral400 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral300 mg
Bar, chewableOral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
ElixirOral
PowderTopical0.375 g/75g
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
Tablet750 mg
GranuleOral
Tablet, coatedOral50 mg
Granule, effervescentOral
TabletOral
WaferOral
Tablet, chewableOral252 mg
Capsule500 mg
Solution500 mg/5ml
Capsule, extended releaseOral500 mg
PowderOral
Capsule15 mg
Solution / dropsOral
Granule1 G
GranuleOral1000 mg
GranuleOral500 mg
Solution / dropsOral100 MG/ML
Tablet1 G
Tablet250 MG
Tablet500 MG
Tablet, chewableOral100 mg
SolutionOral100 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1000 mg
CapsuleOral500 mg
Tablet, effervescent1000 mg
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, effervescent500 mg
Tablet, film coated200 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, film coated8000 IU
Capsule, coatedOral
PowderOral500 mg
Tablet4000 IU
Capsule4000 IU
Solution / dropsOral2000 IU/mL
Lozenge50 mg
Tablet, chewableOral310 mg
WaferOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
TabletOral4000 IU
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1250 µg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2500 µg
Tablet, coated500 mg
CapsuleOral200 IU
Tablet15 mg
Tablet, coatedOral60 mg
Tablet, coatedOral20 mg
Capsule50 mg
CapsuleOral261.29 mg
SyrupOral121 mg
LozengeOral
Tablet, effervescentOral330 mg
SolutionOral10 mg
Capsule60 mg
LiquidOral
Capsule75 mg
SolutionOral700 mg/100mL
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, chewableOral250 mg
SolutionIntravenous2.5 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mcg
Kit; powderOral
Tablet, coatedOral113 mg
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral500 mg
SolutionOral600 mg
CapsuleOral
Tablet, effervescent1 g
Tablet, film coatedOral329.7 mg
Tablet, coatedOral15 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral0 -
Tablet, chewableOral125 mg/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
KitIntravenous
Tablet, coatedOral3.75 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
TabletOral8.3 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral200 mg
Solution500 mg/2ml
KitOral
SolutionOral100 g
Tablet, effervescentOral600 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1200 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral900 mg
SolutionIntravenous
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionIntravenous140 mcg
SolutionOral
SyrupOral2500 IU/5ml
TabletOral
LiquidIntravenous
Tablet, coatedOral75 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.6 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral1.2 MG
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, coatedOral70 mg
LiquidTopical
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg
SyrupOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Tablet, film coatedOral15 mg
SyrupOral1500 IU
Solution / dropsOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
InjectionIntravenous500 mg/5ml
SolutionOral200 mg
SolutionOral50 mg/5mL
Syrup1250 IU
Syrup150 ml
Tablet, effervescent0.33 g
Capsule150 mg
StickOral
Solution2.5 mg
Liquid; tabletOral
Lozenge600 mcg
KitOral
Syrup2500 IU
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/100mL
LozengeOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Powder, for solution3500 IU
Capsule; liquidOral
Tablet, coatedOral25 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral1 mg
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg/5ml
Powder, for solution400 mg
Tablet50 mg
Syrup25 mg/5mL
SuppositoryVaginal250 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous3500 IU
CapsuleOral3.5 mg
Tablet, chewableOral5000 IU
Tablet, chewableBuccal230 mg
GranuleOral33.33 mg
Capsule, coatedOral500 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral25 mg
TabletOral15 mg
SyrupOral1250 IU/5mL
Tablet, chewableOral500 mg
Injection, solution100 mg/1mL
Injection, solution2.5 g/10mL
Injection, solution25 g/100mL
Injection, solution500 mg/2mL
TabletOral500 mg/1
Injection, solutionParenteral7.5 g
Tablet, coatedOral1 g
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg
GranuleOral
PowderOral
Tablet25 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableBuccal250 mg
Injection, solution1 G/5ML
Injection, solution500 MG/5ML
TabletOral0.5 g
SolutionIntramuscular100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular500 mg
InjectionIntravenous1 g
InjectionIntravenous2 g
SolutionOral1 G
Tablet0.5 G
TabletOral1 g
CapsuleOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SyrupOral320 mg
LiquidTopical36 g/70g
Solution / dropsOral2000 IU
Syrup20 mg/5mL
Paste, dentifriceTopical
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg
GranuleOral70 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cenolate 500 mg/1 ml ampul1.74USD ml
Cenolate 1 gm/2 ml ampul1.21USD ml
Calcium ascorbate powder0.79USD g
Ascorbic acid 222 mg/ml vial0.35USD ml
Ascor l 500 500 mg/ml vial0.24USD ml
Vitamin c 1500 mg tablet sa0.22USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vit c ener boost 1000 mg0.21USD each
Cemill+bioflavonoids tablet0.09USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet sa0.09USD tablet
Cemill-1000 tablet0.08USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Cemill-500 tablet sa0.07USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg tablet chw0.06USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.06USD caplet
Ascorbic acid 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.04USD caplet
Pv ester-c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg chew tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c drops0.04USD tablet
Ra vitamin c cough drops0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet chew0.03USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Ra vitamin c 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vicks vitamin c 60 mg drops0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US7169381No2007-01-302024-09-01US flag
US7658914No2010-02-092024-09-01US flag
US9326969No2016-05-032033-09-10US flag
US9592252No2017-03-142032-08-11US flag
US9707297No2017-07-182033-09-10US flag
US8999313No2015-04-072033-09-10US flag
US10016504No2018-07-102033-09-10US flag
US10646512No2012-03-252032-03-25US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)191 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4E+005 mg/L (at 40 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-1.85AVDEEF,A (1997)
pKa4.7 (at 10 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility245.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity37.03 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.6559
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8532
Caco-2 permeable-0.771
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6077
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9097
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9807
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9008
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8133
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8696
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6361
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8958
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9478
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9347
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9662
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9249
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8941
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9417
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9526
Rat acute toxicity1.3059 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9676
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9286
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.32 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-4900000000-e99089fd55560fb70cfe
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0912000000-baa8cffda0478e1bc197
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-8ff8f48bfa2dd4fd3cf5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-c1dc72c6cbc49fbf3454
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-b207f4024993c5a74769
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0911000000-9af0c08e85e0c51a25c4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Hyaluronate lyase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q54873
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronate lyase
Molecular Weight
120770.645 Da
References
  1. Li S, Taylor KB, Kelly SJ, Jedrzejas MJ: Vitamin C inhibits the enzymatic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15125-30. Epub 2001 Jan 12. [PubMed:11278838]
  2. Okorukwu ON, Vercruysse KP: Effects of ascorbic acid and analogs on the activity of testicular hyaluronidase and hyaluronan lyase on hyaluronan. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003 Aug;18(4):377-82. [PubMed:14567553]
  3. Botzki A, Rigden DJ, Braun S, Nukui M, Salmen S, Hoechstetter J, Bernhardt G, Dove S, Jedrzejas MJ, Buschauer A: L-Ascorbic acid 6-hexadecanoate, a potent hyaluronidase inhibitor. X-ray structure and molecular modeling of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29;279(44):45990-7. Epub 2004 Aug 18. [PubMed:15322107]
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cleavage
DNA is the molecule of heredity, as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. It is a polynucleic acid that carries genetic information on cell growth, division, and function. DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds. The sequence of nucleotides determines hereditary characteristics. Each strand serves as the template for subsequent DNA replication and as a template for mRNA production, leading to protein synthesis via ribosomes.
References
  1. Guarnieri S, Loft S, Riso P, Porrini M, Risom L, Poulsen HE, Dragsted LO, Moller P: DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Br J Nutr. 2008 May;99(5):1018-24. Epub 2007 Oct 10. [PubMed:17925050]
  2. Singh S, Rana SV: Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by L-Ascorbic acid in laboratory rat. J Environ Biol. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):377-84. [PubMed:17929753]
  3. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC: Protection of arsenic-induced hepatic disorder by arjunolic acid. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Nov;101(5):333-8. [PubMed:17910617]
  4. Chiou SH, Chang WC, Jou YS, Chung HM, Lo TB: Specific cleavages of DNA by ascorbate in the presence of copper ion or copper chelates. J Biochem. 1985 Dec;98(6):1723-6. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a135445. [PubMed:3937842]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces rubiginosus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xylose isomerase activity
Specific Function
Involved in D-xylose catabolism.
Gene Name
xylA
Uniprot ID
P24300
Uniprot Name
Xylose isomerase
Molecular Weight
43226.915 Da
References
  1. Li S, Taylor KB, Kelly SJ, Jedrzejas MJ: Vitamin C inhibits the enzymatic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15125-30. Epub 2001 Jan 12. [PubMed:11278838]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD2
Uniprot ID
O00469
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2
Molecular Weight
84685.07 Da
References
  1. Yeowell HN, Walker LC, Murad S, Pinnell SR: A common duplication in the lysyl hydroxylase gene of patients with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI results in preferential stimulation of lysyl hydroxylase activity and mRNA by hydralazine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Nov 1;347(1):126-31. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1997.0319. [PubMed:9344473]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Phytanoyl-coa dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name
PHYH
Uniprot ID
O14832
Uniprot Name
Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal
Molecular Weight
38538.065 Da
References
  1. Mukherji M, Chien W, Kershaw NJ, Clifton IJ, Schofield CJ, Wierzbicki AS, Lloyd MD: Structure-function analysis of phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase mutations causing Refsum's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Sep 1;10(18):1971-82. doi: 10.1093/hmg/10.18.1971. [PubMed:11555634]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD3
Uniprot ID
O60568
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
Molecular Weight
84784.505 Da
References
  1. Yeowell HN, Walker LC, Murad S, Pinnell SR: A common duplication in the lysyl hydroxylase gene of patients with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI results in preferential stimulation of lysyl hydroxylase activity and mRNA by hydralazine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Nov 1;347(1):126-31. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1997.0319. [PubMed:9344473]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name
BBOX1
Uniprot ID
O75936
Uniprot Name
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
Molecular Weight
44714.6 Da
References
  1. Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S: Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine by the perfused guinea pig liver. Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10764-70. [PubMed:6432788]
  2. Vaz FM, van Gool S, Ofman R, IJlst L, Wanders RJ: Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;466:117-24. [PubMed:10709635]
  3. Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. [PubMed:1962562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Suzuki E, Kurata T, Shibata M, Mori M, Arakawa N: Activities of D- and L-xyloascorbic acid and D- and L-araboascorbic acid as a cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;43(5):491-6. [PubMed:9505234]
  2. Pettingill TM, Strange RW, Blackburn NJ: Carbonmonoxy dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):16996-7003. [PubMed:1894598]
  3. Feng J, Shi J, Sirimanne SR, Mounier-Lee CE, May SW: Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 1;350 Pt 2:521-30. [PubMed:10947967]
  4. Menniti FS, Knoth J, Diliberto EJ Jr: Role of ascorbic acid in dopamine beta-hydroxylation. The endogenous enzyme cofactor and putative electron donor for cofactor regeneration. J Biol Chem. 1986 Dec 25;261(36):16901-8. [PubMed:3097015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutat...
Gene Name
PAM
Uniprot ID
P19021
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Molecular Weight
108331.35 Da
References
  1. Romero I, Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta M, Maldonado R, Isabel Escribano M, Merodio C: Anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and stress-induced gene expression in high CO2-treated table grapes stored at low temperature. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165(5):522-30. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [PubMed:17570561]
  2. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A: Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta. 2006 Nov;224(6):1363-72. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16773376]
  3. Crespo A, Marti MA, Roitberg AE, Amzel LM, Estrin DA: The catalytic mechanism of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase investigated by computer simulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12817-28. [PubMed:17002377]
  4. Kolhekar AS, Mains RE, Eipper BA: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: an ascorbate-requiring enzyme. Methods Enzymol. 1997;279:35-43. doi: 10.1016/s0076-6879(97)79007-4. [PubMed:9211255]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in...
Gene Name
P3H1
Uniprot ID
Q32P28
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Osipyants AI, Poloznikov AA, Smirnova NA, Hushpulian DM, Khristichenko AY, Chubar TA, Zakhariants AA, Ahuja M, Gaisina IN, Thomas B, Brown AM, Gazaryan IG, Tishkov VI: L-ascorbic acid: A true substrate for HIF prolyl hydroxylase? Biochimie. 2018 Apr;147:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2017.12.011. Epub 2017 Dec 28. [PubMed:29289682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H2
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL5
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
Molecular Weight
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Osipyants AI, Poloznikov AA, Smirnova NA, Hushpulian DM, Khristichenko AY, Chubar TA, Zakhariants AA, Ahuja M, Gaisina IN, Thomas B, Brown AM, Gazaryan IG, Tishkov VI: L-ascorbic acid: A true substrate for HIF prolyl hydroxylase? Biochimie. 2018 Apr;147:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2017.12.011. Epub 2017 Dec 28. [PubMed:29289682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H3
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL6
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
Molecular Weight
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Osipyants AI, Poloznikov AA, Smirnova NA, Hushpulian DM, Khristichenko AY, Chubar TA, Zakhariants AA, Ahuja M, Gaisina IN, Thomas B, Brown AM, Gazaryan IG, Tishkov VI: L-ascorbic acid: A true substrate for HIF prolyl hydroxylase? Biochimie. 2018 Apr;147:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2017.12.011. Epub 2017 Dec 28. [PubMed:29289682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name
P4HA1
Uniprot ID
P13674
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Osipyants AI, Poloznikov AA, Smirnova NA, Hushpulian DM, Khristichenko AY, Chubar TA, Zakhariants AA, Ahuja M, Gaisina IN, Thomas B, Brown AM, Gazaryan IG, Tishkov VI: L-ascorbic acid: A true substrate for HIF prolyl hydroxylase? Biochimie. 2018 Apr;147:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2017.12.011. Epub 2017 Dec 28. [PubMed:29289682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase that catalyzes 3-hydroxylation of 'Pro-62' of small ribosomal subunit RPS23, thereby regulating protein translation termination efficiency. Involved in stress granule formation.
Gene Name
OGFOD1
Uniprot ID
Q8N543
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase OGFOD1
Molecular Weight
63245.655 Da
References
  1. Kuiper C, Vissers MC: Ascorbate as a co-factor for fe- and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases: physiological activity in tumor growth and progression. Front Oncol. 2014 Dec 10;4:359. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00359. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25540771]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
OGFOD2
Uniprot ID
Q6N063
Uniprot Name
2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2
Molecular Weight
38996.065 Da
References
  1. Kuiper C, Vissers MC: Ascorbate as a co-factor for fe- and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases: physiological activity in tumor growth and progression. Front Oncol. 2014 Dec 10;4:359. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00359. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25540771]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA containing 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Can also repair alkylated DNA containing 1-ethenoadenine (in vitro). Has s...
Gene Name
ALKBH2
Uniprot ID
Q6NS38
Uniprot Name
DNA oxidative demethylase ALKBH2
Molecular Weight
29322.22 Da
References
  1. Duncan T, Trewick SC, Koivisto P, Bates PA, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B: Reversal of DNA alkylation damage by two human dioxygenases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16660-5. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [PubMed:12486230]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA containing 1-methyladenine (1meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3meC) by oxidative demethylation. Has a strong preference for single-stranded DNA. Able to process alk...
Gene Name
ALKBH3
Uniprot ID
Q96Q83
Uniprot Name
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3
Molecular Weight
33374.495 Da
References
  1. Duncan T, Trewick SC, Koivisto P, Bates PA, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B: Reversal of DNA alkylation damage by two human dioxygenases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16660-5. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [PubMed:12486230]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-9', H3 'Lys-27', H3 'Lys-36', H3 'Lys-...
Gene Name
KDM5D
Uniprot ID
Q9BY66
Uniprot Name
Lysine-specific demethylase 5D
Molecular Weight
174071.34 Da
References
  1. Lee MG, Norman J, Shilatifard A, Shiekhattar R: Physical and functional association of a trimethyl H3K4 demethylase and Ring6a/MBLR, a polycomb-like protein. Cell. 2007 Mar 9;128(5):877-87. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17320162]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD1
Uniprot ID
Q02809
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
83549.55 Da
References
  1. Salavoura K, Valari M, Kolialexi A, Mavrou A, Kitsiou S: A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI. Genet Couns. 2006;17(3):291-4. [PubMed:17100196]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Yeowell HN, Walker LC, Murad S, Pinnell SR: A common duplication in the lysyl hydroxylase gene of patients with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI results in preferential stimulation of lysyl hydroxylase activity and mRNA by hydralazine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Nov 1;347(1):126-31. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1997.0319. [PubMed:9344473]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name
TMLHE
Uniprot ID
Q9NVH6
Uniprot Name
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
49517.2 Da
References
  1. van Vlies N, Ofman R, Wanders RJ, Vaz FM: Submitochondrial localization of 6-N-trimethyllysine dioxygenase - implications for carnitine biosynthesis. FEBS J. 2007 Nov;274(22):5845-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.06108.x. Epub 2007 Oct 18. [PubMed:17944936]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates HIF1A at 'Pro-402' and 'Pro-564'. May function as a cellular oxygen sen...
Gene Name
P4HTM
Uniprot ID
Q9NXG6
Uniprot Name
Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
56660.535 Da
References
  1. Vasta JD, Raines RT: Human Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Is Activated by Ligands for Its Iron Center. Biochemistry. 2016 Jun 14;55(23):3224-33. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00251. Epub 2016 May 31. [PubMed:27183028]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chaperone
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Smirnoff N: Ascorbic acid metabolism and functions: A comparison of plants and mammals. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Jul;122:116-129. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.03.033. Epub 2018 Mar 20. [PubMed:29567393]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chaperone
General Function
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN2
Uniprot ID
Q96KS0
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 2
Molecular Weight
43650.03 Da
References
  1. Nytko KJ, Spielmann P, Camenisch G, Wenger RH, Stiehl DP: Regulated function of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) oxygen sensor proteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Sep;9(9):1329-38. [PubMed:17627474]
  2. Bruegge K, Jelkmann W, Metzen E: Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(17):1853-62. [PubMed:17627521]
  3. Smirnoff N: Ascorbic acid metabolism and functions: A comparison of plants and mammals. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Jul;122:116-129. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.03.033. Epub 2018 Mar 20. [PubMed:29567393]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chaperone
General Function
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN3
Uniprot ID
Q9H6Z9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 3
Molecular Weight
27261.06 Da
References
  1. Smirnoff N: Ascorbic acid metabolism and functions: A comparison of plants and mammals. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Jul;122:116-129. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.03.033. Epub 2018 Mar 20. [PubMed:29567393]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enha...
Gene Name
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID
Q16881
Uniprot Name
Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Figueroa-Mendez R, Rivas-Arancibia S: Vitamin C in Health and Disease: Its Role in the Metabolism of Cells and Redox State in the Brain. Front Physiol. 2015 Dec 23;6:397. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00397. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26779027]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Lozinsky E, Novoselsky A, Glaser R, Shames AI, Likhtenshtein GI, Meyerstein D: Effect of ionic strength on the binding of ascorbate to albumin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jul 3;1571(3):239-44. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00257-x. [PubMed:12090938]
  2. Oelrichs BA, Kratzing CC, Kelly JD, Winzor DJ: The binding of ascorbate to bovine serum albumin. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1984;54(1):61-4. [PubMed:6735617]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-dependent l-ascorbate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium/ascorbate cotransporter. Mediates electrogenic uptake of vitamin C, with a stoichiometry of 2 Na(+) for each ascorbate.
Gene Name
SLC23A1
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 23 member 1
Molecular Weight
64830.445 Da
References
  1. Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Chen XZ, Wang Y, Brubaker RF, Hediger MA: A family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature. 1999 May 6;399(6731):70-5. [PubMed:10331392]
  2. Wilson JX: Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:105-25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092647. [PubMed:16011461]
  3. Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, Kim JE, Mun GH, Kim YS, Cho D, Shin DH, Hwang YI, Lee WJ: Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Mar;127(3):698-706. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17008880]
  4. Johnston L, Laverty G: Vitamin C transport and SVCT1 transporter expression in chick renal proximal tubule cells in culture. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Mar;146(3):327-34. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17258485]
  5. Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV: SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake. Amino Acids. 2008 Apr;34(3):347-55. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17541511]
  6. Perez MJ, Castano B, Gonzalez-Buitrago JM, Marin JJ: Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio. J Pineal Res. 2007 Sep;43(2):130-9. [PubMed:17645691]
  7. Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, Mansourian R, Bertschy E, Smola H, Mauch C, Williamson G: Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Sep 1;43(5):752-62. Epub 2007 May 10. [PubMed:17664139]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium/ascorbate cotransporter. Mediates electrogenic uptake of vitamin C, with a stoichiometry of 2 Na(+) for each ascorbate.
Specific Function
L-ascorbic acid transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC23A2
Uniprot ID
Q9UGH3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 23 member 2
Molecular Weight
70336.235 Da
References
  1. Wilson JX: Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:105-25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092647. [PubMed:16011461]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including b...
Gene Name
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID
P11166
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1
Molecular Weight
54083.325 Da
References
  1. Wilson JX: Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:105-25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092647. [PubMed:16011461]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane (PubMed:9477959, PubMed:26176916). Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deox...
Gene Name
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID
P11169
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3
Molecular Weight
53923.785 Da
References
  1. Wilson JX: Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:105-25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092647. [PubMed:16011461]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID
P14672
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4
Molecular Weight
54786.79 Da
References
  1. Wilson JX: Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:105-25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092647. [PubMed:16011461]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2020 01:55

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