Identification

Name
Cholecalciferol
Commonly known or available as Vitamin D3
Accession Number
DB00169
Description

Vitamin D, in general, is a secosteroid generated in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol located there interacts with ultraviolet irradiation - like that commonly found in sunlight 9. Both the endogenous form of vitamin D (that results from 7-dehydrocholesterol transformation), vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), and the plant-derived form, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), are considered the main forms of vitamin d and are found in various types of food for daily intake 9. Structurally, ergocalciferol differs from cholecalciferol in that it possesses a double bond between C22 and C23 and has an additional methyl group at C24 9. Finally, ergocalciferol is pharmacologically less potent than cholecalciferol, which makes vitamin D3 the preferred agent for medical use 9.

Appropriate levels of vitamin D must be upheld in the body in order to maintain calcium and phosphorus levels in a healthy physiologic range to sustain a variety of metabolic functions, transcription regulation, and bone metabolism 4,9,10,11,12,13,14. However, studies are also ongoing to determine whether or not cholecalciferol may also play certain roles in cancer, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and other medical conditions that may be associated with vitamin D deficiency 9.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 384.6377
Monoisotopic: 384.33921603
Chemical Formula
C27H44O
Synonyms
  • (+)-vitamin D3
  • (3β,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol
  • (5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol
  • Activated 7-dehydrocholesterol
  • Calciol
  • CC
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Cholecalciferolum
  • Colecalciferol
  • Colecalciferolum
  • Oleovitamin D3
  • Vitamin D-3
  • Vitamin D3
External IDs
  • NSC-375571

Pharmacology

Indication

Cholecalciferol use is indicated for the treatment of specific medical conditions like refractory rickets (or vitamin D resistant rickets), hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia 12,13.

Concurrently, as one of the most commonly utilized forms of vitamin D, cholecalciferol is also very frequently used as a supplement in individuals to maintain sufficient vitamin d levels in the body or to treat vitamin D deficiency, as well as various medical conditions that can be associated directly or indirectly with vitamin d insufficiency like osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease, among others 2,3,15.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

The in vivo synthesis of the predominant two biologically active metabolites of vitamin D occurs in two steps. The first hydroxylation of vitamin D3 cholecalciferol (or D2) occurs in the liver to yield 25-hydroxyvitamin D while the second hydroxylation happens in the kidneys to give 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 12,13,14. These vitamin D metabolites subsequently facilitate the active absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine, serving to increase serum calcium and phosphate levels sufficiently to allow bone mineralization 12,13,14. Conversely, these vitamin D metabolites also assist in mobilizing calcium and phosphate from bone and likely increase the reabsorption of calcium and perhaps also of phosphate via the renal tubules 12,13,14. There exists a period of 10 to 24 hours between the administration of cholecalciferol and the initiation of its action in the body due to the necessity of synthesis of the active vitamin D metabolites in the liver and kidneys 12,13,14. It is parathyroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of such metabolism at the level of the kidneys 12,13,14.

Mechanism of action

Most individuals naturally generate adequate amounts of vitamin D through ordinary dietary intake of vitamin D (in some foods like eggs, fish, and cheese) and natural photochemical conversion of the vitamin D3 precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin via exposure to sunlight 9,12,13,14.

Conversely, vitamin D deficiency can often occur from a combination of insufficient exposure to sunlight, inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D, genetic defects with endogenous vitamin D receptor, or even severe liver or kidney disease 1. Such deficiency is known for resulting in conditions like rickets or osteomalacia, all of which reflect inadequate mineralization of bone, enhanced compensatory skeletal demineralization, resultant decreased calcium ion blood concentrations, and increases in the production and secretion of parathyroid hormone 4. Increases in parathyroid hormone stimulate the mobilization of skeletal calcium and the renal excretion of phosphorus 4. This enhanced mobilization of skeletal calcium leads towards porotic bone conditions 4.

Ordinarily, while vitamin D3 is made naturally via photochemical processes in the skin, both itself and vitamin D2 can be found in various food and pharmaceutical sources as dietary supplements. The principal biological function of vitamin D is the maintenance of normal levels of serum calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream by enhancing the efficacy of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet 4. At the liver, vitamin D3 or D2 is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and then finally to the primary active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney via further hydroxylation 4,1. This final metabolite binds to endogenous vitamin d receptors, which results in a variety of regulatory roles - including maintaining calcium balance, the regulation of parathyroid hormone, the promotion of the renal reabsorption of calcium, increased intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and increased calcium and phosphorus mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone to plasma to maintain balanced levels of each in bone and the plasma 4,1.

In particular, calcitriol interacts with vitamin D receptors in the small intestine to enhance the efficiency of intestinal calcium and phosphorous absorption from about 10-15% to 30-40% and 60% increased to 80%, respectively 9. Furthermore, calcitriol binds with vitamin D receptors in osteoblasts to stimulate a receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (or RANKL) which subsequently interacts with receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (NFkB) on immature preosteoclasts, causing them to become mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts 9. Such mature osteoclasts ultimately function in removing calcium and phosphorus from bone to maintain blood calcium and phosphorus levels 9. Moreover, calcitriol also stimulates calcium reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate in the kidneys 9.

Additionally, it is believed that when calcitriol binds with nuclear vitamin D receptors, that this bound complex itself binds to retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) to generate a heterodimeric complex that consequently binds to specific nucleotide sequences in the DNA called vitamin D response elements 9. When bound, various transcription factors attach to this complex, resulting in either up or down-regulation of the associated gene's activity. It is thought that there may be as much as 200 to 2000 genes that possess vitamin D response elements or that are influenced indirectly to control a multitude of genes across the genome 9. It is in this way that cholecalciferol is believed to function in regulating gene transcription associated with cancer risk, autoimmune disorders, and cardiovascular disease linked to vitamin D deficiency 9. In fact, there has been some research to suggest calcitriol may also be able to prevent malignancies by inducing cellular maturation and inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis, exhibit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting foam cell formation and promoting angiogenesis in endothelial colony-forming cells in vitro, inhibit immune reactions by enhancing the transcription of endogenous antibiotics like cathelicidin and regulate the activity and differentiation of CD4+ T cells, amongst a variety of other proposed actions 9.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVitamin D3 receptor
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Cholecalciferol is readily absorbed from the small intestine if fat absorption is normal 12,13,14. Moreover, bile is necessary for absorption as well 12,13,14.

In particular, recent studies have determined aspects about the absorption of vitamin D, like the fact that a) the 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolite of cholecalciferol is absorbed to a greater extent than the nonhydroxy form of cholecalciferol, b) the quantity of fat with which cholecalciferol is ingested does not appear to largely affect its bioavailability, and c) age does not apparently effect vitamin D cholecalciferol 7.

Volume of distribution

Studies have determined that the mean central volume of distribution of administered cholecalciferol supplementation in a group of 49 kidney transplant patients was approximately 237 L 5.

Protein binding

The protein binding documented for cholecalciferol is 50 to 80% 8. Specifically, in the plasma, vitamin D3 (from either diet or the skin) is bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) produced in the liver, for transport to the liver. Ultimately, the form of vitamin D3 reaching the liver is 25-hydroxylated, and such 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is bound to DBP (α2-globulin) whilst circulating in the plasma 14.

Metabolism

Within the liver, cholecalciferol is hydroxylated to calcifediol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) by the enzyme vitamin D-25-hydroxylase 12,13,14. At the kidney, calcifediol subsequently serves as a substrate for 1-alpha-hydroxylase, yielding calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the biologically active form of vitamin D3 12,13,14.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

It has been observed that administered cholecalciferol and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the bile and feces 8.

Half-life

At this time, there have been resources that document the half-life of cholecalciferol as being about 50 days 8 while other sources have noted that the half-life of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is approximately 15 hours while that of calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) is about 15 days 10.

Moreover, it appears that the half-lives of any particular administration of vitamin d can vary due to variations in vitamin d binding protein concentrations and genotype in particular individuals 6.

Clearance

Studies have determined that the mean clearance value of administered cholecalciferol supplementation in a group of 49 kidney transplant patients was approximately 2.5 L/day 5.

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Chronic or acute administration of excessive doses of cholecalciferol may lead to hypervitaminosis D, manifested by hypercalcemia and its sequelae 12,13,14. Early symptoms of hypercalcemia may include weakness, fatigue, somnolence, headache, anorexia, dry mouth, metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, tinnitus, ataxia, and hypotonia 12,13,14. Later and possibly more serious manifestation include nephrocalcinosis, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis in adults, impaired growth in children, anemia, metastatic calcification, pancreatitis, generalized vascular calcification, and seizures 12,13,14.

Safety of doses in excess of 400 IU (10mcg) of vitamin D3 daily during pregnancy has not been established 12,13,14. Maternal hypercalcemia, possibly caused by excessive vitamin D intake during pregnancy, has been associated with hypercalcemia in neonates, which may lead to supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome, the features of which may include retinopathy, mental or growth retardation, strabismus, and other effects 12,13,14. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may also lead to suppression of parathyroid hormone release in the neonate, resulting in hypocalcemia, tetany, and seizures 12,13,14.

Vitamin D is deficient in maternal milk; therefore, breastfed infants may require supplementation. Use of excessive amounts of Vitamin D in nursing mothers may result in hypercalcemia in infants. Doses of Vitamin D3 in excess of 10 µg daily should not be administered daily to nursing women.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Lovastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Cerivastatin Action PathwayDrug action
HypercholesterolemiaDisease
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X-Linked Dominant (CDPX2)Disease
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)Disease
Mevalonic AciduriaDisease
Simvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Pravastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Rosuvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Zoledronate Action PathwayDrug action
Pamidronate Action PathwayDrug action
Fluvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)Disease
Cholesteryl Ester Storage DiseaseDisease
Steroid BiosynthesisMetabolic
Ibandronate Action PathwayDrug action
Alendronate Action PathwayDrug action
Risedronate Action PathwayDrug action
Atorvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
DesmosterolosisDisease
CHILD SyndromeDisease
Hyper-IgD SyndromeDisease
Wolman DiseaseDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Cholecalciferol can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AcebutololThe metabolism of Acebutolol can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Cholecalciferol can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of ventricular arrhythmias and Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Cholecalciferol is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AlfacalcidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cholecalciferol is combined with Alfacalcidol.
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
AlogliptinThe metabolism of Alogliptin can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with Cholecalciferol.
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
    Available for Purchase

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity
    Available for Purchase

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
    Available for Purchase

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action
    Available for Purchase

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Purchasing individual compounds or compound libraries for your research?
Learn More
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Delta-D / Micro-D / Optimal-D (RV Nutritional, LLC) / Vigantol
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
AdrovanceTabletOralMerck Sharp & Dohme B.V.2007-01-04Not applicableEU flag
D-tabs 10000unitTabletOralLaboratoire Riva Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Luxa-DCapsuleOralOrimed Pharma Corporation2015-07-31Not applicableCanada flag
Luxa-DCapsuleOralOrimed Pharma Corporation2015-10-20Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ag-vitamin DTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Ag-vitamin DCapsuleOralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Euro D 10 000CapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2017-08-16Not applicableCanada flag
Euro-D 10000 IuCapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2011-08-29Not applicableCanada flag
Euro-D 5000 IuCapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Euro-D 50000 IuCapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2011-08-09Not applicableCanada flag
Jamp-vitamin DCapsuleOralJamp Pharma Corporation2015-11-20Not applicableCanada flag
Jamp-vitamin DTabletOralJamp Pharma Corporation2012-05-02Not applicableCanada flag
Jamp-vitamin DCapsuleOralJamp Pharma CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Jamp-vitamin DCapsuleOralJamp Pharma Corporation2016-06-23Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
D Vi Sol Infants Drops 400unit/0.6mlSolution / dropsOralMead Johnson Nutritionals1985-12-311998-09-28Canada flag
Vitamin D 1000iuTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1999-07-082007-08-07Canada flag
Vitamin D 400 IuTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-03-132007-08-07Canada flag
Vitamin D 400 Iu TabletsTabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1996-12-112009-08-04Canada flag
Vitamin D-dry 400 I.U.TabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsCholecalciferol (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsCholecalciferol (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
A + D OintmentCholecalciferol (500 unit) + Vitamin A palmitate (2000 unit)OintmentTopicalNational Care Products Ltd.1993-12-312002-10-10Canada flag
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaCholecalciferol (45 unit) + Calcium (24 mg) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Naturally Ltd1999-02-012006-06-16Canada flag
Aces TabCholecalciferol (200 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (200 unit) + Zinc (25 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada flag
Acti-cal/mag 2:1 + Zinc and D CapletCholecalciferol (100 unit) + Calcium (350.0 mg) + Magnesium (175.0 mg) + Zinc (6.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Actical Plus Calcium-magnesium-vitamin D3-silicon ChewableCholecalciferol (100 unit) + Calcium (200 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.1999-09-302004-07-27Canada flag
Active Calcium Plus Magnesium, Vitamin D and SiliconCholecalciferol (100 unit) + Calcium (200 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Silicon (2.25 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2002-07-082007-07-18Canada flag
Actonel Sachet KitCholecalciferol (880 unit) + Calcium (1000 mg) + Risedronate sodium (35 mg)Granule, effervescent; Kit; TabletOralWarner ChilcottNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Adult Formula 50+Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Beta carotene (3000 unit) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (220 mg) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Iodine (0.15 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Molybdenum (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Potassium (37.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg) + Selenium (10 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (3000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (60 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-252009-09-28Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Active FECholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Active OBCholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31US flag
Animi-3Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Animi-3 with Vitamin DCholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHACholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (430 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHA EssentialCholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (374 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag
C-Nate DHACholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (30 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (200 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralCenturion Labs, LLC2013-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Calcium Folic Acid Plus D ChewableCholecalciferol (300 [iU]/1) + Boron (250 ug/1) + Calcium carbonate (1342 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (125 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (10 mg/1)WaferOralAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-03-20Not applicableUS flag
Cavan AlphaCholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (230 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (220 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-07-012013-09-30US flag
Cavan Folate DHACholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Beta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-06-042012-03-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
M05BB09 — Ibandronic acid and colecalciferolM05BX53 — Strontium ranelate and colecalciferolM05BB07 — Risedronic acid and colecalciferolM05BB08 — Zoledronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialA11CC55 — Colecalciferol, combinationsM05BB05 — Alendronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialA11CC05 — ColecalciferolM05BB03 — Alendronic acid and colecalciferolM05BB04 — Risedronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequential
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vitamin d and derivatives. These are compounds containing a secosteroid backbone, usually secoergostane or secocholestane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Vitamin D and derivatives
Direct Parent
Vitamin D and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Triterpenoids / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Alcohol / Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound / Cyclic alcohol / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organooxygen compound / Secondary alcohol / Triterpenoid
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary alcohol, steroid hormone, seco-cholestane, hydroxy seco-steroid, D3 vitamins (CHEBI:28940) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives, Fat-soluble vitamins (C05443) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives (LMST03020000)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
1C6V77QF41
CAS number
67-97-0
InChI Key
QYSXJUFSXHHAJI-YRZJJWOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H44O/c1-19(2)8-6-9-21(4)25-15-16-26-22(10-7-17-27(25,26)5)12-13-23-18-24(28)14-11-20(23)3/h12-13,19,21,24-26,28H,3,6-11,14-18H2,1-2,4-5H3/b22-12+,23-13-/t21-,24+,25-,26+,27-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3Z)-3-{2-[(1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-7a-methyl-1-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-octahydro-1H-inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene}-4-methylidenecyclohexan-1-ol
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[[email protected]@H](C)[[email protected]@]1([H])CC[[email protected]@]2([H])\C(CCC[[email protected]]12C)=C\C=C1\C[[email protected]@H](O)CCC1=C

References

Synthesis Reference

Jean Jolly, Primo Rizzi, Jean Taillardat, "1.alpha.,25.alpha.-Dihydroxy-cholecalciferol and methods for the production thereof." U.S. Patent US4435325, issued May, 1977.

US4435325
General References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [PubMed:15531486]
  2. Jean G, Souberbielle JC, Chazot C: Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients. Nutrients. 2017 Mar 25;9(4). pii: nu9040328. doi: 10.3390/nu9040328. [PubMed:28346348]
  3. Heaney RP: Alendronate plus cholecalciferol for the treatment of osteoporosis. Womens Health (Lond). 2006 Jan;2(1):23-7. doi: 10.2217/17455057.2.1.23. [PubMed:19803923]
  4. DeLuca HF: Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1689S-96S. [PubMed:15585789]
  5. Benaboud S, Urien S, Thervet E, Prie D, Legendre C, Souberbielle JC, Hirt D, Friedlander G, Treluyer JM, Courbebaisse M: Determination of optimal cholecalciferol treatment in renal transplant recipients using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;69(3):499-506. doi: 10.1007/s00228-012-1378-3. Epub 2012 Aug 31. [PubMed:22936122]
  6. Jones KS, Assar S, Harnpanich D, Bouillon R, Lambrechts D, Prentice A, Schoenmakers I: 25(OH)D2 half-life is shorter than 25(OH)D3 half-life and is influenced by DBP concentration and genotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Sep;99(9):3373-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1714. Epub 2014 Jun 2. [PubMed:24885631]
  7. Borel P, Caillaud D, Cano NJ: Vitamin D bioavailability: state of the art. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55(9):1193-205. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2012.688897. [PubMed:24915331]
  8. Caroline Ashley, Aileen Dunleavy (2018). The Renal Drug Handbook: The Ultimate Prescribing Guide for Renal Practitioners, 5th Edition (5th ed.). CRC Press. [ISBN:0429863632]
  9. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) – Pharmacological Properties, Therapeutic Utility and Potential New Fields of Clinical Application by Yulian Voynikov, Georgi Momekov, Plamen Peikov [Link]
  10. Vitamin D Supplementation: An Update [Link]
  11. NIH Vitamin D Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Link]
  12. Cholecalciferol Canadian Prescribing Information [File]
  13. Decalcitrol (coated cholecalciferol tablet) US FDA Monograph [File]
  14. CLH Report for Cholecalciferol [File]
  15. Alendronate sodium and cholecalciferol Canadian Product Monograph [File]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000876
KEGG Drug
D00188
KEGG Compound
C05443
PubChem Compound
5280795
PubChem Substance
46506365
ChemSpider
4444353
BindingDB
50030475
RxNav
1244014
ChEBI
28940
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1042
ZINC
ZINC000004474460
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001273
PharmGKB
PA164748138
PDBe Ligand
VD3
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Cholecalciferol
AHFS Codes
  • 88:16.00 — Vitamin D
MSDS
Download (123 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBone Diseases, Metabolic / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic / Vascular Stiffness1
4CompletedBasic Science25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDeficiency, Vitamin D2
4CompletedBasic SciencePremature Births1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchCritically-ill Patients1
4CompletedOtherChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Nephrotic Syndrome / Transplantation, Renal1
4CompletedPreventionAllergies / Wheezing1
4CompletedPreventionBenign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)1
4CompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Chain Drug
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Freeda Vitamins
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mason Distributors
  • Merck & Co.
  • MSD Frosst Iberica SA
  • Pharmavite
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Professional Co.
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral50000 IU
TabletOral200 IU
OintmentTopical
Granule, effervescent; kit; tabletOral
TabletOral
Tablet, effervescentOral70 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral70 mg
TabletOral70 mg
Tablet, chewableOral1000 [iU]/1
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral25000 U.I./2.5ML
SolutionOral50000 U.I./5ML
Solution / dropsOral10000 UI/1ML
CreamTopical
TabletOral3 mg
TabletOral2 mcg
Tablet, chewableOral5 mg
SyrupOral10 mg/5ml
TabletOral1500 IU
CapsuleOral0.4 mg
SyrupOral400 IU
SyrupOral0.35 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral1 mg/mL
Bar, chewableOral
CapsuleOral5 mg
TabletOral2500 MG
Powder, for solutionOral500 mg
TabletOral4 mcg
CapsuleOral1000 mg
TabletOral582.5 IU
CapsuleOral2 mcg
CapsuleOral1000 IU
CapsuleOral400 mcg
TabletOral300 mg
CapsuleOral220 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1.5 g
Tablet, effervescentOral150 mg
SolutionOral70 mg/75ml
Granule, effervescentOral
GranuleOral1250 MG
Granule, effervescentOral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableOral1.5 g
Tablet, effervescentOral1.5 g
Tablet, chewableOral1500 mg
TabletOral250 mg
TabletOral157.2 mg
Tablet, chewableOral157.2 mg
TabletOral600 mg
TabletOral950 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1657.895 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1188 mg
Tablet, coatedOral0.4 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1200 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral600 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral800 IU
Tablet, chewableOral800 IU
Tablet, effervescentOral2500 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1500 mg
Granule, effervescentOral2.5 g/6.7g
Tablet, chewableOral1000 MG
Tablet, coatedOral600 mg
Granule, effervescentOral2500 mg
TabletOral276 mg
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral27 mg
Tablet, chewableOral1.25 g
Tablet, effervescentOral2469 mg
Tablet1 g
Tablet, effervescentOral1.05 g
GranuleOral2500 mg
Powder, for suspensionOral3100 MG
Tablet, effervescentOral1000 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1.65 g
TabletOral1.65 g
Tablet, coatedOral250 mcg
Capsule15 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1 g
Tablet, effervescentOral1 g
Tablet, chewableOral400 iu
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral125 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous5.8 mg
Tablet, chewableOral0.25 mg
Tablet, chewableOral50 mg
LiquidOral38 mg
CapsuleOral20000 I.E.
Solution / dropsOral14400 I.E./ml
SolutionOral25000 UI/2.5ML
SolutionOral50000 U.I./2.5ML
Solution / dropsOral10000 U.I./ML
SolutionOral25000 IU/2.5ml
Solution / dropsOral10000 UI/ML
SolutionOral50000 UI/2.5ML
Solution / dropsOral200000 IU/mL
Tablet500 IU/1
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionOral300000 IU
Solution / dropsOral50000 IU/15ml
Solution / dropsOral15000 iu/10ml
Solution / dropsOral15 ml
Capsule, liquid filledOral100000 IU
Tablet, coatedOral50000 [iU]/1
CapsuleOral10000 [iU]/1
CapsuleOral25000 [iU]/1
CapsuleOral50000 [iU]/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral2000 IU
TabletOral1000 IE
TabletOral400 IE
TabletOral500 IE
Tablet, coatedOral2000 iu
Solution / dropsOral2000 IU/mL
TabletOral400 IU/1
SolutionIntramuscular300000 IU/ml
SyrupOral400 mg/100ml
Injection, solutionIntramuscular100000 UI/ML
Injection, solutionIntramuscular300000 UI/ML
Tablet, film coatedOral1000 I.E.
Tablet, film coatedOral30000 I.E.
Tablet, film coatedOral7000 I.E.
Tablet, film coatedOral800 I.E.
Tablet, film coatedOral500 IU
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, film coatedOral125 mg
TabletOral4000 IU
CapsuleOral
Tablet, coatedOral200 IU
CapsuleOral100 IU
SolutionOral5600 IU
Capsule, liquid filledOral1 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral5000 IU
Capsule, liquid filledOral7000 IU
Tablet, coatedOral60 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral1500 mg
TabletOral25 mg
Tablet1000 IU
Tablet500 IU
WaferOral
Solution / dropsOral150000 iu/10ml
TabletOral
PowderOral600 mg
TabletOral6.5 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral2 g
Capsule60 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral0.6 mg
Tablet, chewableOral1 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1000 iu
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionOral25000 IU
Tablet, coatedOral168.78 mg
PowderOral168.78 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mg
Tablet, chewableOral1250 mg
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral1579 mg
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1500 mg
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescent1 g
SuspensionOral15 g
Tablet, chewableOral2500 IU
TabletOral400 IU
CapsuleOral400 IU
Tablet, coatedOral3.75 mg
Syrup400 iu/5mL
Tablet, coatedOral2.204 mg
Granule, effervescentOral2500 mg/8g
Tablet, chewableOral10 mcg
TabletOral1500 MG
TabletOral1000 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Oral7.5 mg
SolutionOral50000 IU/15ml
SolutionIntravenous140 mcg
SolutionOral
SyrupOral2500 IU/5ml
CapsuleOral1828 µg
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral15 mg
Tablet, coatedOral75 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral1500 MG
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.6 mg
TabletOral500 mg
CapsuleOral200 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
Tablet, effervescentOral1200 mg/IU
CapsuleOral200 IU
Tablet, chewableOral300 mg
SolutionOral0.00014 g
SolutionOral100000 IU
Tablet, coatedOral315 mg
Powder, for solutionOral315 mg
CapsuleOral3000 IU
Solution / dropsOral14400 IU/ml
TabletOral150 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Solution / dropsOral50000 i.u./15ml
TabletOral1250 MG
TabletOral1.5 g
CapsuleOral250 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral12 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1250 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral35 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral150 mg
InjectionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
SolutionOral100 mg
CapsuleOral2000 IU
CapsuleOral2667 IU
CapsuleOral50 mcg
Tablet, effervescent0.15 mg
SyrupOral150 mg
SyrupOral1500 IU
Suspension / dropsOral
Solution / dropsOral
Granule, effervescentOral1000 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
PillOral
Tablet, chewableBuccal1500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, chewableOral
WaferOral
CapsuleOral0.1 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
TabletOral6 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral75 mg
Syrup1250 IU
Syrup150 ml
Tablet, chewableOral750 mg
Tablet, chewableOral15 IU
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mcg
TabletOral2 g
Tablet, chewableOral600 mg
TabletOral2 mg
Syrup100 iu/5mL
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous3500 IU
TabletOral1550 MG
LiquidOral
Tablet50 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous3500 IU
Solution / dropsOral20000 IU/ml
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral9.11 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral25 mg
Capsule75 mg
StripOral
Tablet, chewableOral10 IU
CapsuleOral2000 unit
CapsuleOral7000 iu
TabletOral1000 IU
TabletOral500 IU
Capsule, liquid filledOral1000 IU
KitOral
Tablet, chewableOral7.33 mg
Solution / dropsOral2000 IU
Syrup20 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular100000 U.I./ML
Injection, solutionIntramuscular300000 U.I./ML
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral600 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cholecalciferol crystals104.3USD g
Vitamin d3 2400 unit/ml liquid0.8USD ml
Vitamin d3 2000 unit spray0.44USD ml
Vitamin d3 3000 unit tablet0.11USD tablet
Vitamin d-3 2000 unit tablet0.07USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin d 1000 unit tablet0.04USD tablet
Delta d3 400 unit tablet0.04USD each
Vitamin d 1000 unit tablet0.03USD tablet
Pv vitamin d 2000 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
Pv vitamin d 5000 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
Vitamin d 400 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5994329Yes1999-11-302019-01-17US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)84.5 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP7.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00038 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.98ALOGPS
logP7.13ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity123.22 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.959
Caco-2 permeable+0.8342
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6706
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7603
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5346
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7818
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8384
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7302
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9256
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9551
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7881
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7093
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.921
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9878
Rat acute toxicity3.9310 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.773
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7589
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (11.1 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B...
Gene Name
VDR
Uniprot ID
P11473
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D3 receptor
Molecular Weight
48288.64 Da
References
  1. Reinhart GA: Vitamin D analogs: novel therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease? Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Sep;5(9):947-51. [PubMed:15503649]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Fujishima T, Tsuji G, Tanaka C, Harayama H: Novel vitamin D receptor ligands having a carboxyl group as an anchor to arginine 274 in the ligand-binding domain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):60-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.04.020. Epub 2010 May 6. [PubMed:20435140]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Has a D-25-hydroxylase activity on both forms of vitamin D, vitamin D(2) and D(3).
Gene Name
CYP2R1
Uniprot ID
Q6VVX0
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
57358.82 Da
References
  1. Flanagan JN, Young MV, Persons KS, Wang L, Mathieu JS, Whitlatch LW, Holick MF, Chen TC: Vitamin D metabolism in human prostate cells: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention by vitamin D. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4A):2567-72. [PubMed:16886665]
  2. Segura-Aguilar J: Peroxidase activity of liver microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase and cytochrome P450 1A2 catalyzes 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 and oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome. Biochem Mol Med. 1996 Jun;58(1):122-9. [PubMed:8809353]
  3. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365]
  4. Ohyama Y, Yamasaki T: Eight cytochrome P450s catalyze vitamin D metabolism. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:3007-18. [PubMed:15353333]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase a...
Gene Name
CYP27A1
Uniprot ID
Q02318
Uniprot Name
Sterol 26-hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
60234.28 Da
References
  1. Lehmann B, Tiebel O, Meurer M: Expression of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (CYP27) mRNA after induction by vitamin D3 or UVB radiation in keratinocytes of human skin equivalents--a preliminary study. Arch Dermatol Res. 1999 Sep;291(9):507-10. [PubMed:10541881]
  2. Sawada N, Sakaki T, Yoneda S, Kusudo T, Shinkyo R, Ohta M, Inouye K: Conversion of vitamin D3 to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by Streptomyces griseolus cytochrome P450SU-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 16;320(1):156-64. [PubMed:15207715]
  3. Uchida E, Kagawa N, Sakaki T, Urushino N, Sawada N, Kamakura M, Ohta M, Kato S, Inouye K: Purification and characterization of mouse CYP27B1 overproduced by an Escherichia coli system coexpressing molecular chaperonins GroEL/ES. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 15;323(2):505-11. [PubMed:15369780]
  4. Sakaki T, Kagawa N, Yamamoto K, Inouye K: Metabolism of vitamin D3 by cytochromes P450. Front Biosci. 2005 Jan 1;10:119-34. Print 2005 Jan 1. [PubMed:15574355]
  5. Tokar EJ, Webber MM: Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) inhibits growth and invasion by up-regulating nuclear receptors and 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) in human prostate cancer cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2005;22(3):275-84. [PubMed:16158255]
  6. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365]
  7. Ohyama Y, Yamasaki T: Eight cytochrome P450s catalyze vitamin D metabolism. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:3007-18. [PubMed:15353333]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible f...
Gene Name
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID
P51589
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2J2
Molecular Weight
57610.165 Da
References
  1. Aiba I, Yamasaki T, Shinki T, Izumi S, Yamamoto K, Yamada S, Terato H, Ide H, Ohyama Y: Characterization of rat and human CYP2J enzymes as Vitamin D 25-hydroxylases. Steroids. 2006 Oct;71(10):849-56. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16842832]
  2. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365]
  2. Ohyama Y, Yamasaki T: Eight cytochrome P450s catalyze vitamin D metabolism. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:3007-18. [PubMed:15353333]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID
P05108
Uniprot Name
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
60101.87 Da
References
  1. Tuckey RC, Janjetovic Z, Li W, Nguyen MN, Zmijewski MA, Zjawiony J, Slominski A: Metabolism of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 by cytochrome P450scc to biologically active 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Dec;112(4-5):213-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.10.005. Epub 2008 Oct 21. [PubMed:19000766]
  2. Tuckey RC, Nguyen MN, Slominski A: Kinetics of vitamin D3 metabolism by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in phospholipid vesicles and cyclodextrin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(11):2619-26. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.05.006. Epub 2008 May 20. [PubMed:18573681]
  3. Guryev O, Carvalho RA, Usanov S, Gilep A, Estabrook RW: A pathway for the metabolism of vitamin D3: unique hydroxylated metabolites formed during catalysis with cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 9;100(25):14754-9. Epub 2003 Dec 1. [PubMed:14657394]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Yamazaki H, Shimada T: Effects of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins, retinol, retinoic acid and cholecalciferol on xenobiotic oxidations catalysed by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica. 1999 Mar;29(3):231-41. doi: 10.1080/004982599238632 . [PubMed:10219964]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
This enzyme action is supported by the results of 1 in vitro study. The clinical correlation is unknown.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Yamazaki H, Shimada T: Effects of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins, retinol, retinoic acid and cholecalciferol on xenobiotic oxidations catalysed by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica. 1999 Mar;29(3):231-41. doi: 10.1080/004982599238632 . [PubMed:10219964]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Vitamin transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.
Gene Name
GC
Uniprot ID
P02774
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D-binding protein
Molecular Weight
52963.025 Da
References
  1. Nykjaer A, Dragun D, Walther D, Vorum H, Jacobsen C, Herz J, Melsen F, Christensen EI, Willnow TE: An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. Cell. 1999 Feb 19;96(4):507-15. [PubMed:10052453]
  2. Verboven C, Rabijns A, De Maeyer M, Van Baelen H, Bouillon R, De Ranter C: A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Feb;9(2):131-6. [PubMed:11799400]
  3. Houghton LA, Vieth R: The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):694-7. [PubMed:17023693]
  4. Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR: Vitamin D3-binding protein as a precursor for macrophage activating factor in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats. Cell Immunol. 1996 Jun 15;170(2):161-7. [PubMed:8660814]
  5. Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR: Role of vitamin D3-binding protein in activation of mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 1996 Aug 15;157(4):1744-9. [PubMed:8759764]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 30, 2020 13:38

Cs molecular health 2