Identification

Name
Folic acid
Accession Number
DB00158
Description

Folic acid, also known as folate or Vitamin B9, is a member of the B vitamin family and an essential cofactor for enzymes involved in DNA and RNA synthesis. More specifically, folic acid is required by the body for the synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and methionine before incorporation into DNA or protein. Folic acid is particularly important during phases of rapid cell division, such as infancy, pregnancy, and erythropoiesis, and plays a protective factor in the development of cancer. As humans are unable to synthesize folic acid endogenously, diet and supplementation is necessary to prevent deficiencies. For example, folic acid is present in green vegetables, beans, avocado, and some fruits.9

In order to function within the body, folic acid must first be reduced by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) into the cofactors dihydrofolate (DHF) and tetrahydrofolate (THF). This important pathway, which is required for de novo synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids, is disrupted by anti-metabolite therapies such as Methotrexate as they function as DHFR inhibitors to prevent DNA synthesis in rapidly dividing cells, and therefore prevent the formation of DHF and THF. When used in high doses such as for cancer therapy, or in low doses such as for Rheumatoid Arthritis or psoriasis, Methotrexate impedes the body's ability to create folic acid. This results in a deficiency of coenzymes and a resultant buildup of toxic substances that are responsible for numerous adverse side effects. As a result, supplementation with 1-5mg of folic acid is recommended to prevent deficiency and a number of side effects associated with MTX therapy including mouth ulcers and gastrointestinal irritation. Leucovorin (also known as folinic acid) supplementation is typically used for high-dose MTX regimens for the treatment of cancer. Levoleucovorin and leucovorin are analogs of tetrahydrofolate (THF) and are able to bypass DHFR reduction to act as a cellular replacement for the co-factor THF.

There are also several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are associated with reduced serum and red blood cell folate, including Carbamazepine (CBZ), Phenytoin (PHT), or barbiturates.7 Folic acid is therefore often provided as supplementation to individuals using these medications, particularly to women of child-bearing age.

Inadequate folate levels can result in a number of health concerns including cardiovascular disease, megaloblastic anemias, cognitive deficiencies, and neural tube defects (NTDs). Folic acid is typically supplemented during pregnancy to prevent the development of NTDs and in individuals with alcoholism to prevent the development of neurological disorders, for example.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 441.3975
Monoisotopic: 441.139681375
Chemical Formula
C19H19N7O6
Synonyms
  • Acide folique
  • ácido fólico
  • Acidum folicum
  • Folacin
  • Folate
  • Folic acid
  • Folsäure
  • N-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • N-pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • PGA
  • PteGlu
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
  • Pteroylglutamic acid
  • Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin Bc
  • Vitamin M
External IDs
  • NSC-3073

Pharmacology

Indication

Folic acid is indicated for the treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia, and in anemias of nutritional origins, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin found in foods such as liver, kidney, yeast, and leafy, green vegetables. Also known as folate or Vitamin B9, folic acid is an essential cofactor for enzymes involved in DNA and RNA synthesis. More specifically, folic acid is required by the body for the synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and methionine before incorporation into DNA or protein. Folic acid is the precursor of tetrahydrofolic acid, which is involved as a cofactor for transformylation reactions in the biosynthesis of purines and thymidylates of nucleic acids. Impairment of thymidylate synthesis in patients with folic acid deficiency is thought to account for the defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis that leads to megaloblast formation and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias. Folic acid is particularly important during phases of rapid cell division, such as infancy, pregnancy, and erythropoiesis, and plays a protective factor in the development of cancer. As humans are unable to synthesize folic acid endogenously, diet and supplementation is necessary to prevent deficiencies. In order to function properly within the body, folic acid must first be reduced by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) into the cofactors dihydrofolate (DHF) and tetrahydrofolate (THF). This important pathway, which is required for de novo synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids, is disrupted by anti-metabolite therapies such as Methotrexate as they function as DHFR inhibitors to prevent DNA synthesis in rapidly dividing cells, and therefore prevent the formation of DHF and THF.

In general, folate serum levels below 5 ng/mL indicate folate deficiency, and levels below 2 ng/mL usually result in megaloblastic anemia.

Mechanism of action

Folic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.

TargetActionsOrganism
UFolate receptor gamma
binder
Humans
UFolate receptor beta
binder
Humans
UFolate receptor alphaNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Folic acid is absorbed rapidly from the small intestine, primarily from the proximal portion. Naturally occurring conjugated folates are reduced enzymatically to folic acid in the gastrointestinal tract prior to absorption. Folic acid appears in the plasma approximately 15 to 30 minutes after an oral dose; peak levels are generally reached within 1 hour.Label

Volume of distribution

Tetrahydrofolic acid derivatives are distributed to all body tissues but are stored primarily in the liver.

Protein binding

Very high to plasma protein

Metabolism

Folic acid is metabolized in the liver into the cofactors dihydrofolate (DHF) and tetrahydrofolate (THF) by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

After a single oral dose of 100 mcg of folic acid in a limited number of normal adults, only a trace amount of the drug appeared in the urine. An oral dose of 5 mg in 1 study and a dose of 40 mcg/kg of body weight in another study resulted in approximately 50% of the dose appearing in the urine. After a single oral dose of 15 mg, up to 90% of the dose was recovered in the urine. A majority of the metabolic products appeared in the urine after 6 hours; excretion was generally complete within 24 hours. Small amounts of orally administered folic acid have also been recovered in the feces. Folic acid is also excreted in the milk of lactating mothers.

Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

IPR-MUS LD50 85 mg/kg,IVN-GPG LD50 120 mg/kg, IVN-MUS LD50 239 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 500 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 410 mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)Disease
Folate MetabolismMetabolic
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug action
Folate Malabsorption, HereditaryDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirFolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Folic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseFolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Folic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Folic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenFolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Folic acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Folic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumFolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineFolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
    Available for Purchase

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity
    Available for Purchase

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
    Available for Purchase

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action
    Available for Purchase

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Purchasing individual compounds or compound libraries for your research?
Learn More
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Folate sodium9P9W8GGU786484-89-5SWIRFWUEJODNRG-CURYUGHLSA-L
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Acfol (Cazi) / Fefol (GlaxoSmithKline)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acide Folique 5 TabTabletOralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-312010-07-13Canada flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralMutual Pharmaceutical2006-09-20Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralApace Packaging2009-12-23Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet5 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2007-05-28Not applicableUS flag
Folic Acid Inj 5mg/ml USPLiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousLyphomed, Division Of Fujisawa Canada Inc.1993-12-311996-09-10Canada flag
Folic Acid Injection USPLiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Folic Acid Injection, USPSolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFresenius Kabi1996-08-14Not applicableCanada flag
Folic Acid Tab 25mgTabletOralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1975-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Folic Acid Tab 5mgTabletOralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-01Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2015-08-04Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2017-12-22Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2015-03-01Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralPuraCap Laboratories LLC dba Blu Pharmaceuticals2010-11-012013-07-31US flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-142019-09-24US flag65162 0361 10 nlmimage10 0823842c
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralMethod Pharmaceuticals, LLC2016-02-092017-12-31US flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralPD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-08-04Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralCadila Pharmaceuticals Limited2018-11-20Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralLeading Pharma, Llc2009-01-12Not applicableUS flag
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-02-282016-11-14US flag64125 0127 10 nlmimage10 a23b510a
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Folic AcidCapsule1 mgOralSisu Inc.1999-08-032006-07-31Canada flag
Folic Acid (1mg Tablet)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-10-102002-07-31Canada flag
Folic Acid 0.4 Mg TabletTabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1999-12-062007-07-31Canada flag
Folic Acid 0.4mgTabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada flag
Folic Acid 0.4mg Dietary SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-08-312000-06-07Canada flag
Folic Acid 0.8mgTabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada flag
Folic Acid 1 mgTabletOralPreferred Nutrition Inc.2004-04-282005-08-04Canada flag
Folic Acid 1 Mg - TabletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1996-10-222002-07-18Canada flag
Folic Acid 1mgTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-152006-08-08Canada flag
Folic Acid 1mgTabletOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1994-12-311997-08-13Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsFolic acid (.8 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 PlusFolic acid (.2 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit) + Vitamin E (20 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsFolic acid (0.4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaFolic acid (0.025 mg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Naturally Ltd1999-02-012006-06-16Canada flag
A/o-26 - CapletFolic acid (.4 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada flag
Acti-folic + Dibencozide CapletsFolic acid (1 mg) + Cobamamide (40 mcg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Adult Formula 50+Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Beta carotene (3000 unit) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (220 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Iodine (0.15 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Molybdenum (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Potassium (37.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg) + Selenium (10 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (3000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (60 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-252009-09-28Canada flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2003-06-16Not applicableUS flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2005-05-18Not applicableUS flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2005-05-18Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Active FEFolic acid (1250 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Active OBFolic acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31US flag
Animi-3Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Animi-3 with Vitamin DFolic acid (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Av-VITE FBFolic acid (2.5 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)TabletOralAv Kare, Inc.2015-11-052016-01-13US flag
B-NexaFolic acid (1.22 mg/1) + Calcium (124.23 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (42 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2012-08-152015-04-30US flag
B-NexaFolic acid (1.2 mg/1) + Calcium (124.1 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (40 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2011-12-082014-02-28US flag
BacminFolic acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (0.1 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Flavone (50 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese gluconate (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (100 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Selenomethionine (50 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (2000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (22.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHAFolic acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (430 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHA EssentialFolic acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (374 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
B03AE02 — Iron, multivitamins and folic acidV04CX02 — Folic acidB03BB01 — Folic acidB03AE01 — Iron, vitamin b12 and folic acidB03BB51 — Folic acid, combinations
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Glutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl-alpha amino acids / Hippuric acids / Pterins and derivatives / Aminobenzamides / Phenylalkylamines / Aniline and substituted anilines / Benzoyl derivatives / Secondary alkylarylamines / Hydroxypyrimidines / Pyrazines
show 10 more
Substituents
Amine / Amino acid / Aminobenzamide / Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Benzamide / Benzenoid
show 30 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
N-acyl-amino acid, folic acids (CHEBI:27470) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00504)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
935E97BOY8
CAS number
59-30-3
InChI Key
OVBPIULPVIDEAO-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H19N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,8,12,21H,5-7H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H3,20,22,25,26,30)/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=NC(CNC3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)N[[email protected]@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O)=CN=C2N1

References

Synthesis Reference

Carroll G. Temple, Jr., Robert D. Elliott, Jerry D. Rose, John A. Montgomery, "Preparation of tetrahydrofolic acid from folic acid." U.S. Patent US4206307, issued April, 1956.

US4206307
General References
  1. Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. [PubMed:9420019]
  2. Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. [PubMed:9683174]
  3. Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. [PubMed:8235383]
  4. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. [PubMed:10138938]
  5. Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. [PubMed:7738698]
  6. Cylwik B, Chrostek L: [Disturbances of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2011 Apr;30(178):295-9. [PubMed:21595178]
  7. Morrell MJ: Folic Acid and Epilepsy. Epilepsy Curr. 2002 Mar;2(2):31-34. doi: 10.1046/j.1535-7597.2002.00017.x. [PubMed:15309159]
  8. Scott JM, Weir DG, Molloy A, McPartlin J, Daly L, Kirke P: Folic acid metabolism and mechanisms of neural tube defects. Ciba Found Symp. 1994;181:180-7; discussion 187-91. [PubMed:8005024]
  9. Health Canada Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals - Folate Contributes to a Healthy Pregnancy [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000121
KEGG Drug
D00070
KEGG Compound
C00504
PubChem Compound
6037
PubChem Substance
46508092
ChemSpider
5815
BindingDB
50237629
RxNav
4511
ChEBI
27470
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1622
ZINC
ZINC000008577218
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001309
PharmGKB
PA449692
PDBe Ligand
FOL
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Folate
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00 — Vitamin B Complex
PDB Entries
1cd2 / 1dhf / 1drf / 1dyi / 1pj6 / 1qzf / 1ra2 / 1ra8 / 1rb2 / 1rd7
show 69 more
FDA label
Download (298 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedNot AvailablePolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4CompletedBasic SciencePsoriasis1
4CompletedPreventionAnovulatory cycle / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Heart Disease / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hemodialysis Treatment / Hyperhomocysteinaemia / Uremia1
4CompletedPreventionDyslipidemia / Homocystinaemia / Menopause1
4CompletedPreventionHypertension,Essential1
4CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Pregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionPostpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Complications, Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Iron Deficiency1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Ben venue laboratories inc
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Cadista pharmaceuticals inc
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Everylife
  • Excellium pharmaceutical inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lannett co inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Nexgen pharma inc
  • Pharmax group inc
  • Pharmeral inc
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Udl laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Ajanta Pharma Ltd.
  • Amend
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apace Packaging
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Avkare Incorporated
  • Avpak
  • Blu Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Chemins Co. Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Consolidated Midland Corp.
  • Contract Pharm
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Deca Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • ESI Lederle
  • Excellium Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • JLM Pharmatech
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Nnodum Pharmaceutical Corporation
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmics Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Re Por Laboratories
  • Remedy Repack
  • Richmond Pharmacy
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Savage Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral630 IU
Tablet, coatedOral1 mg
SolutionOral10 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg
Tablet, coatedOral5 mg
TabletOral400 MCG
TabletOral1 mg
CapsuleOral0.2 mg
TabletOral3 mg
TabletOral2 mcg
Tablet, chewableOral5 mg
TabletOral1500 IU
CapsuleOral0.4 mg
Bar, chewableOral
Tablet, coatedOral6.4 mg
Tablet, coatedOral300 mg
SolutionOral
PatchTransdermal
Tablet, coatedOral10 mcg
TabletOral400 MICROGRAMMI
Tablet, coatedOral50 mcg
Tablet, sugar coatedOral50 mg
Tablet, coatedOral3 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral15 mg
TabletOral25 mg
CapsuleOral15 IU
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mcg
TabletOral4 mcg
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mcg
TabletOral8.5 mg
TabletOral7.5 mg
TabletOral500 mcg
TabletOral582.5 IU
TabletOral10 mcg
CapsuleOral2 mcg
CapsuleOral400 mcg
Granule, effervescentOral
Tablet, coatedOral0.4 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral125 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous5.8 mg
SyrupOral4000 mcg
Tablet, chewableOral0.5 mg
Tablet, chewableOral0.25 mg
Tablet, chewableOral50 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, film coated8000 IU
Tablet4000 IU
Capsule4000 IU
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletOral0.1 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, film coatedOral125 mg
TabletOral4000 IU
CapsuleOral10 mg
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1250 µg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2500 µg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular1 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular2 mg
Tablet, coatedOral0.5 MG
CapsuleOral35 mg
TabletOral350 mcg
TabletOral15 mg
Tablet, coatedOral60 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
TabletOral5 MG
Tablet, coatedOral20 mg
Tablet, chewableOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral101 mg
Tablet, coatedOral180 mg
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg
CapsuleOral0.8 mg
Tablet, coatedOral37.75 mg
Tablet, coatedOral182.5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral105 mg
SuspensionOral5 mg
CapsuleOral162 mg
Capsule50 mg
CapsuleOral261.29 mg
SyrupOral121 mg
LozengeOral
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg/1mL
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral400 ug/1
TabletOral800 ug/1
CapsuleOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
TabletOral
CapsuleOral1.66 mg/1
CapsuleOral5 MG
Injection, solutionIntramuscular15 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionParenteral15 MG/2ML
TabletOral0.4 mg
Capsule60 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral1000 mcg
SyrupOral20 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral0.6 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mcg
TabletOral800 mcg
TabletOral18 mcg
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg
Tablet, coatedOral270 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral256.3 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mcg
SyrupOral2.4 mg
CapsuleOral1 mg
CapsuleOral4 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral800 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
CapsuleOral
SyrupOral50 mg/5ml
Solution / dropsOral
Tablet, coatedOral15 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral750 mcg
Tablet, chewableOral2500 IU
LiquidOral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
KitIntravenous
Tablet, chewableOral350 mcg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral30 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral1200 mcg
TabletOral8.3 mg
CapsuleOral750 mcg
TabletOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous140 mcg
CapsuleOral1828 µg
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.25 mg
TabletOral
LiquidIntravenous
CapsuleOral50 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral75 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.6 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
TabletOral150 µg
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, coatedOral70 mg
SyrupOral0.2 mg
Tablet, chewableOral200 mcg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral1.2 mg
CapsuleOral3000 IU
SolutionOral2 mcg/100ml
TabletOral150 mg
CapsuleOral550 mcg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral150 mg
InjectionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
CapsuleOral2667 IU
Tablet, effervescent0.15 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral15 mg
CapsuleOral4.2 mg
Tablet, coatedOral50 mg
CapsuleOral4000 IU
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
PillOral
TabletOral0.5 mg
SyrupOral1.25 mcg
WaferOral
Tablet, effervescentOral2333 IU
CapsuleOral0.1 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mcg
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral300 mg
Tablet, chewableOral15 IU
Capsule150 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mcg
Injection, solutionIntravenous3.1 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous60 µg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous400 mcg
Solution2.5 mg
TabletOral40 mcg
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral256.32 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.35 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, coatedOral25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral185 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral1 mg
Capsule, coatedOral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous3500 IU
CapsuleOral3.5 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral9.11 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral25 mg
Capsule75 mg
StripOral
Tablet, chewableOral10 IU
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral0.5 mg
KitOral
Tablet, chewableOral7.33 mg
SuspensionOral100 mg/5ml
Tablet, chewableOral1250 IU
PowderOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Folic acid 5 mg/ml vial2.14USD ml
Folic Acid 5 mg/ml2.04USD ml
Folic acid powder1.68USD g
Folvite 5 mg/ml vial1.38USD ml
Folic Acid 1 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Folic acid 400 mcg tablet0.07USD tablet
Apo-Folic 5 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy folic acid 800 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.4 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.8 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0761 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.04ALOGPS
logP-0.68ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7956
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7609
Caco-2 permeable-0.844
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.687
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9795
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9969
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.876
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8276
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7947
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6212
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9281
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9435
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.916
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9075
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.974
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8724
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9521
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9191
Rat acute toxicity2.4490 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9529
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8444
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Folic acid binding
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. Isoform Short does not bind folate.
Gene Name
FOLR3
Uniprot ID
P41439
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
27638.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Shen F, Ross JF, Wang X, Ratnam M: Identification of a novel folate receptor, a truncated receptor, and receptor type beta in hematopoietic cells: cDNA cloning, expression, immunoreactivity, and tissue specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 Feb 8;33(5):1209-15. [PubMed:8110752]
  4. Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M: Folate receptor type gamma is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 25;34(16):5660-5. [PubMed:7727426]
  5. Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Moe AJ, Smith CH, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Selective expression of the high-affinity isoform of the folate receptor (FR-alpha) in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):71-5. [PubMed:8061055]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Methotrexate binding
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analo...
Gene Name
FOLR2
Uniprot ID
P14207
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor beta
Molecular Weight
29279.31 Da
References
  1. Dixit V, Van den Bossche J, Sherman DM, Thompson DH, Andres RP: Synthesis and grafting of thioctic acid-PEG-folate conjugates onto Au nanoparticles for selective targeting of folate receptor-positive tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):603-9. [PubMed:16704197]
  2. Wlodarczyk BJ, Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Bozinov D, Zhu H, Finnell RH: Arsenic-induced gene expression changes in the neural tube of folate transport defective mouse embryos. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):547-57. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16620997]
  3. Boyles AL, Billups AV, Deak KL, Siegel DG, Mehltretter L, Slifer SH, Bassuk AG, Kessler JA, Reed MC, Nijhout HF, George TM, Enterline DS, Gilbert JR, Speer MC: Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1547-52. [PubMed:17035141]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analo...
Gene Name
FOLR1
Uniprot ID
P15328
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
29818.94 Da
References
  1. Wang L, Desmoulin SK, Cherian C, Polin L, White K, Kushner J, Fulterer A, Chang MH, Mitchell-Ryan S, Stout M, Romero MF, Hou Z, Matherly LH, Gangjee A: Synthesis, biological, and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits beta-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2011 Oct 27;54(20):7150-64. doi: 10.1021/jm200739e. Epub 2011 Sep 22. [PubMed:21879757]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Omega peptidase activity
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and fr...
Gene Name
GGH
Uniprot ID
Q92820
Uniprot Name
Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
Molecular Weight
35964.045 Da
References
  1. Schneider E, Ryan TJ: Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10. [PubMed:16859665]
  2. Eisele LE, Chave KJ, Lehning AC, Ryan TJ: Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16945597]
  3. Chen L, Eitenmiller RR: Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3884-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [PubMed:17439143]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name
MTHFR
Uniprot ID
P42898
Uniprot Name
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
74595.895 Da
References
  1. West AA, Caudill MA: Genetic variation: impact on folate (and choline) bioefficacy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):319-29. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000040. [PubMed:21462116]
  2. Kim YI: Role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in cancer risk modification and treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 May;5(4):523-42. doi: 10.2217/fon.09.26. [PubMed:19450180]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA pre...
Gene Name
DHFR
Uniprot ID
P00374
Uniprot Name
Dihydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
21452.61 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a ...
Gene Name
ABCC11
Uniprot ID
Q96J66
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11
Molecular Weight
154299.625 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537867]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528]
  2. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [PubMed:9827570]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. [PubMed:12036927]
  2. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [PubMed:12883481]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. [PubMed:12874005]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithel...
Gene Name
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID
Q96NT5
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled folate transporter
Molecular Weight
49770.04 Da
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475902]
  2. Ashokkumar B, Mohammed ZM, Vaziri ND, Said HM: Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):159-66. [PubMed:17616776]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Folic acid transporter activity
Specific Function
Transports folate across the inner membranes of mitochondria.
Gene Name
SLC25A32
Uniprot ID
Q9H2D1
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier
Molecular Weight
35406.83 Da
References
  1. Salbaum JM, Kappen C: Genetic and epigenomic footprints of folate. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2012;108:129-58. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-398397-8.00006-X. [PubMed:22656376]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 29, 2020 03:54

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates