• IL-2
  • T-cell growth factor
  • TCGF
Gene Name
Amino acid sequence
Number of residues
Molecular Weight
Theoretical pI
GO Classification
carbohydrate binding / cytokine activity / glycosphingolipid binding / growth factor activity / interleukin-2 receptor binding / kinase activator activity
activation of MAPKK activity / adaptive immune response / axon guidance / cell adhesion / cell-cell signaling / epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway / extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand / Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway / fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway / immune response / innate immune response / insulin receptor signaling pathway / MAPK cascade / natural killer cell activation / negative regulation of apoptotic process / negative regulation of B cell apoptotic process / negative regulation of heart contraction / negative regulation of inflammatory response / negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation / negative regulation of protein phosphorylation / neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway / positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation / positive regulation of B cell proliferation / positive regulation of cell growth / positive regulation of cell proliferation / positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration / positive regulation of dendritic spine development / positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion / positive regulation of inflammatory response / positive regulation of interferon-gamma production / positive regulation of interleukin-17 production / positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes / positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation / positive regulation of tissue remodeling / positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter / positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein / protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway / Ras protein signal transduction / regulation of T cell homeostatic proliferation / small GTPase mediated signal transduction / T cell differentiation / vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway
cytosol / extracellular region / extracellular space / intracellular
General Function
Kinase activator activity
Specific Function
Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016290|Interleukin-2 (IL2)
Chromosome Location
External Identifiers
UniProtKB IDP60568
UniProtKB Entry NameIL2_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID5729676
GenBank Gene IDJ00264
GenAtlas IDIL2
General References
  1. Maeda S, Nishino N, Obaru K, Mita S, Nomiyama H, Shimada K, Fujimoto K, Teranishi T, Hirano T, Onoue K: Cloning of interleukin 2 mRNAs from human tonsils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Sep 30;115(3):1040-7. [Article]
  2. Taniguchi T, Matsui H, Fujita T, Takaoka C, Kashima N, Yoshimoto R, Hamuro J: Structure and expression of a cloned cDNA for human interleukin-2. Nature. 1983 Mar 24-30;302(5906):305-10. [Article]
  3. Devos R, Plaetinck G, Cheroutre H, Simons G, Degrave W, Tavernier J, Remaut E, Fiers W: Molecular cloning of human interleukin 2 cDNA and its expression in E. coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jul 11;11(13):4307-23. [Article]
  4. Fujita T, Takaoka C, Matsui H, Taniguchi T: Structure of the human interleukin 2 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Dec;80(24):7437-41. [Article]
  5. Holbrook NJ, Lieber M, Crabtree GR: DNA sequence of the 5' flanking region of the human interleukin 2 gene: homologies with adult T-cell leukemia virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jun 25;12(12):5005-13. [Article]
  6. Holbrook NJ, Smith KA, Fornace AJ Jr, Comeau CM, Wiskocil RL, Crabtree GR: T-cell growth factor: complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the gene in normal and malignant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Mar;81(6):1634-8. [Article]
  7. Eizenberg O, Faber-Elman A, Lotan M, Schwartz M: Interleukin-2 transcripts in human and rodent brains: possible expression by astrocytes. J Neurochem. 1995 May;64(5):1928-36. [Article]
  8. Chernicky CL, Tan H, Burfeind P, Ilan J, Ilan J: Sequence of interleukin-2 isolated from human placental poly A+ RNA: possible role in maintenance of fetal allograft. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996 Feb;43(2):180-6. [Article]
  9. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [Article]
  10. Siebenlist U, Durand DB, Bressler P, Holbrook NJ, Norris CA, Kamoun M, Kant JA, Crabtree GR: Promoter region of interleukin-2 gene undergoes chromatin structure changes and confers inducibility on chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene during activation of T cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Sep;6(9):3042-9. [Article]
  11. Weir MP, Chaplin MA, Wallace DM, Dykes CW, Hobden AN: Structure-activity relationships of recombinant human interleukin 2. Biochemistry. 1988 Sep 6;27(18):6883-92. [Article]
  12. Robb RJ, Kutny RM, Panico M, Morris HR, Chowdhry V: Amino acid sequence and post-translational modification of human interleukin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct;81(20):6486-90. [Article]
  13. Conradt HS, Nimtz M, Dittmar KE, Lindenmaier W, Hoppe J, Hauser H: Expression of human interleukin-2 in recombinant baby hamster kidney, Ltk-, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Structure of O-linked carbohydrate chains and their location within the polypeptide. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 15;264(29):17368-73. [Article]
  14. Laabi Y, Gras MP, Carbonnel F, Brouet JC, Berger R, Larsen CJ, Tsapis A: A new gene, BCM, on chromosome 16 is fused to the interleukin 2 gene by a t(4;16)(q26;p13) translocation in a malignant T cell lymphoma. EMBO J. 1992 Nov;11(11):3897-904. [Article]
  15. Brandhuber BJ, Boone T, Kenney WC, McKay DB: Three-dimensional structure of interleukin-2. Science. 1987 Dec 18;238(4834):1707-9. [Article]
  16. Bazan JF: Unraveling the structure of IL-2. Science. 1992 Jul 17;257(5068):410-3. [Article]
  17. Mott HR, Driscoll PC, Boyd J, Cooke RM, Weir MP, Campbell ID: Secondary structure of human interleukin 2 from 3D heteronuclear NMR experiments. Biochemistry. 1992 Aug 25;31(33):7741-4. [Article]
  18. Bamborough P, Hedgecock CJ, Richards WG: The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling. Structure. 1994 Sep 15;2(9):839-51. [Article]
  19. Wang X, Rickert M, Garcia KC: Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science. 2005 Nov 18;310(5751):1159-63. [Article]
  20. Stauber DJ, Debler EW, Horton PA, Smith KA, Wilson IA: Crystal structure of the IL-2 signaling complex: paradigm for a heterotrimeric cytokine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21;103(8):2788-93. Epub 2006 Feb 13. [Article]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB03453Methyl (2S)-2-[[2-[(3R)-1-carbamimidoylpiperidin-3-yl]acetyl]amino]-3-[4-(2-phenylethynyl)phenyl]propanoateexperimentalunknownDetails
DB05299Keyhole limpet hemocyaninapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB03455(1H-indol-3-yl)-(2-mercapto-ethoxyimino)-acetic acidexperimentalunknownDetails