Identification

Generic Name
NN344
DrugBank Accession Number
DB05115
Background

NN344 is a neutral, soluble long-acting human insulin analogue with 24 hour coverage by once daily injection. NN344 has a very flat and predictable action profile. The product is intended for basal insulin treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2.

Reduce drug development failure rates
Build, train, & validate machine-learning models
with evidence-based and structured datasets.
See how
Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
See how
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
Improve clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.
Learn more
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action

NN344 binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of NN344 to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.

TargetActionsOrganism
UInsulin receptorNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Improve decision support & research outcomes
With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.
Learn more
Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Learn more
Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbaloparatideThe therapeutic efficacy of NN344 can be decreased when used in combination with Abaloparatide.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acarbose is combined with NN344.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of NN344 can be increased when used in combination with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with NN344.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with NN344.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with NN344.
AcetohexamideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetohexamide is combined with NN344.
AcetophenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of NN344 can be decreased when used in combination with Acetophenazine.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetyl sulfisoxazole is combined with NN344.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with NN344.
Identify potential medication risks
Easily compare up to 40 drugs with our drug interaction checker.
Get severity rating, description, and management advice.
Learn more
Food Interactions
Not Available

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
Not Available
CAS number
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Klein O, Lynge J, Endahl L, Damholt B, Nosek L, Heise T: Albumin-bound basal insulin analogues (insulin detemir and NN344): comparable time-action profiles but less variability than insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):290-9. [Article]
  2. Jonassen I, Havelund S, Ribel U, Plum A, Loftager M, Hoeg-Jensen T, Volund A, Markussen J: Biochemical and physiological properties of a novel series of long-acting insulin analogs obtained by acylation with cholic acid derivatives. Pharm Res. 2006 Jan;23(1):49-55. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [Article]
PubChem Substance
347909955

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Build, predict & validate machine-learning models
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new
insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (...
Gene Name
INSR
Uniprot ID
P06213
Uniprot Name
Insulin receptor
Molecular Weight
156331.465 Da

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Barnett CR, Wilson J, Wolf CR, Flatt PR, Ioannides C: Hyperinsulinaemia causes a preferential increase in hepatic P4501A2 activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Mar 17;43(6):1255-61. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(92)90500-i. [Article]
  2. Pass GJ, Becker W, Kluge R, Linnartz K, Plum L, Giesen K, Joost HG: Effect of hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes-like hyperglycemia on expression of hepatic cytochrome p450 and glutathione s-transferase isoforms in a New Zealand obese-derived mouse backcross population. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):442-50. doi: 10.1124/jpet.102.033553. [Article]

Drug created at October 21, 2007 22:23 / Updated at June 12, 2020 16:52