Aloe vera leaf

Identification

Brand Names
Alcortin A, Aloquin
Generic Name
Aloe vera leaf
DrugBank Accession Number
DB13906
Background

Aloe describes a genus including over 500 species of flowering succulent plants that grow in the Southern peninsula and various islands. Aloe vera, or Aloe barbadensis miller, is the most common species of Aloe that is cultivated for agricultural and medical purposes. It is a perennial succulent xerophyte with elongated leaves that contain a clear gel. While aloe vera has a long history of commercial uses, it is still widely used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products. The use of aloe vera in constipation, inflammatory disorders, cancer, ulcer, and diabetes has also been investigated 4. The active constituents of aloe vera include polysaccharides with protective effects on skin, as they exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties 5. Common active polysaccharides include glucomannans, polymannose, and acemannan, or b-(1–4)-acetylated polymannose 3. Acemannan and other modified polysaccharides are responsible in preventing suppression of contact hypersensitivity or immune suppression induced by external factors such as irradiation 2.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Experimental
Synonyms
  • Aloe
  • Aloe (aloe barbadensis)
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf extract
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf juice
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf juice powder
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf powder
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf water
  • Aloe folii extractus (aloe vera)
  • Aloe folium (aloe vera)
  • Aloe herba (aloe vera)
  • Aloe leaf extract
  • Aloe vera
  • Aloe vera dry leaf juice
  • Aloe vera extract
  • Aloe vera leaf extract
  • Aloe vera leaf exudate
  • Aloe vera leaf juice
  • Aloe vera leaf mucilage
  • Aloe vera leaf powder
  • Aloe vera mucilage
  • Aloes
  • Aloes (aloe barbadensis)
  • Barbatos aloe leaf
  • Curacao aloe leaf
  • Ghrita kumari leaf
  • Kanyasara
  • Lu hui (aloe vera)
  • Lu hui ye
  • Luhui (aloe barbadensis)
External IDs
  • Fema no. 2047

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for use as a topical agent to soothe sensitive skin and to relieve symptoms of various skin conditions, including contact or atopic dermatitis, eczema, dermatitis and acne urticata, first- and second-degree burns, radiation dermatitis, and sunburn.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Aloe polysaccharides mediate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, as well as immunoregulatory activities. Various studies indicate that aloe polysaccharides possess effective free radical scavenging activity in vitro, and produce potent antioxidant potential during oxidative stress in vivo 4. According to the findings of studies in vitro and in vivo, aloe polysaccharides exhibit radioprotective activity. Treatment with acemmanan, which is a common aloe polysaccharide, on CH3 mice with radiation-induced skin reactions resulted in reduced signs of those reactions 2. Studies suggest that aloe polysaccharides may evidently attenuate tumor growth in mice 2. Treatment of aloe polysaccharides in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model led to protective effects against AAPH-indued oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of free radical species and improved cell viability 1.

Mechanism of action

It is suggested that aloe polysaccharides mediate skin-protectant effects in damaged skin, induced by internal or other external factors such as radiation, via inhibiting apoptosis of normal cell lines in vitro and thrombocytes in vivo 2. Following irradiation, aloe polysaccharides block the upregulation of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax, and Bad while blocking downregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 2. In vivo, aloe polysaccharides may act as a scavenger for oxygen free radicals including DPPH, alkyl radicals, superoxides, and singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals that may also be generated by superoxides 1,4. Hydrogen peroxide, which is a weak initiate lipid peroxidation, may also be effectively scavenged by aloe polysaccharides 4. In a Fenton reaction system, aloe polysaccharides demonstrated a concentration-dependent scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical that were generated during the reaction 4. Aloe polysaccharides may also compete with oxygen to react with nitric oxide (NO), thereby inhibiting the generation of nitrite and peroxynitrite anions that act as free radicals 4.

Findings from a study investigating the effects of aloe polysaccharides on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress suggest that aloe polysaccharides mediate potent antioxidant actions in vivo 4. Doxorubicin, known to generate reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydroxy radicals, was administered to albino rats. This led to myocardial oxidative stress and cardiac injury accompanied by leakage of LDH and CPK from cardiac myocytes and to serum due to lipid peroxidation of cardiac membranes, reduced levels of antioxidant coenzyme GSH, and increased levels of SOD from a compensatory and combative mechanism of oxidative stress 4. Treatment with aloe polysaccharides resulted in a significant decrease in serum LDH and CPK levels, indicating that aloe polysaccharides are capable in stabilizing cardiac membranes from peroxidative damage. Restored levels of endogenous GSH and SOD in a dose-dependent manner were also observed with the treatment of aloe polysaccharides, suggesting that aloe polysaccharides exhibit potent antioxidant properties 4.

In a study of rats with open cutaneous back wounds, treatment with aloe polysaccharides decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and induced tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) during the early stage of wound repair, resulting in decreased collagen breakdown and increased preservation of collagen content in the injured area 6. A study proposes that acemannan, a common aloe polysaccharide, stimulates BMSC proliferation, ALPase activity, expression of VEGF, BMP-2, OPN, BSP, and mineralization leading to osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during socket healing 3.

TargetActionsOrganism
AFree radicals
chelator
Humans
Absorption

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Route of elimination

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Half-life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

The oral LD50 value of aloe polysaccharides in a mouse toxicity study was 6.1 g/kg 4. No cases of overdose reported.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Aloe Vera GelGel5 g/100gTopicalYuyao Jessie Commodity Co.,Ltd.2014-05-08Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiLotion63.52 g/100gTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiCream46.27 g/100gTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Baby Wipe PremiumCloth1 g/1TopicalSHINWA INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION2021-05-062021-05-11US flag
Bring Green Fresh Mask AloePatch10.0 g/20gTopicalCj Olive Networks Co., Ltd.2018-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Capsulax Cap 250mgCapsule250 mg / capOralProduits Aloex Ltee1992-12-311997-09-11Canada flag
Capsulax Capsules 250mgCapsule250 mg / capOralSantrel International Inc.1992-12-312000-09-11Canada flag
HelloMouthwash20 g/100mLDentalHello Products LLC2018-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Lafiya personal lubricant X002CRXC1TOil4.74 g/237mLVaginalDongguanshi Chunzhen Biotechnology Co.,Ltd2019-12-01Not applicableUS flag
Ramosu Aloe Vera Leaf Extract 100Liquid100 g/100mLTopicalRaMoSu2016-02-04Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
75 Alcohol Hand SanitizerAloe vera leaf (1 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidExtracorporealFujian Quanzhou Kete New Material Co., Ltd.2020-04-26Not applicableUS flag
Aloe Vera SprayerAloe vera leaf (2 g/100g) + Glycerin (4 g/100g) + Propylene glycol (2 g/100g) + Tocopherol (0.5 g/100g)LiquidTopicalNINGBO JIANGBEI OCEAN STAR TRADING CO.,LTD2015-02-20Not applicableUS flag
ARILAC Soothing Mask Sheet PackAloe vera leaf (6.295 g/100mL) + Chamaecyparis obtusa wood oil (30.0 g/100mL)PatchTopicalMenapay Inc.2021-05-01Not applicableUS flag
AtopimAloe vera leaf (64 g/100g) + Glycerin (2.5 g/100g)LiquidTopicalHI Technology2019-05-11Not applicableUS flag
BenzoinAloe vera leaf (.12 g/0.6mL) + Benzoin (0.6 g/0.6mL) + Liquidambar styraciflua resin (.48 g/0.6mL) + Tolu balsam (.24 g/0.6mL)SwabTopicalJames Alexander Corporation1976-10-252025-02-28US flag
Bicholate LilasAloe vera leaf (12 mg) + Bisacodyl (5 mg) + Frangula purshiana bark (30 mg) + Sodium taurocholate (60 mg)TabletOralSabex Inc1998-10-282009-11-24Canada flag
C Ottways Lax TabAloe vera leaf (132 mg) + Capsicum (19 mg) + Frangula purshiana bark (28 mg) + Ginger (9 mg) + Glycyrrhiza glabra (28 mg) + Sennosides (28 mg)TabletOralC Ottway Herbalist1950-12-311997-06-13Canada flag
Disinfect WipesAloe vera leaf (0.0025 1/1001) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.4 1/1001) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.03 1/1001) + Citric acid (0.01 1/1001) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (0.2 1/1001) + Dimethicone (0.05 1/1001) + Glycerin (0.01 1/1001) + Phenoxyethanol (0.2 1/1001) + Tocopherol (0.0025 1/1001)ClothTopicalJiangsu Terra Medical Technology Co Ltd2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
Disinfect WipesAloe vera leaf (0.0025 1/1001) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.4 1/1001) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.03 1/1001) + Citric acid (0.01 1/1001) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (0.2 1/1001) + Dimethicone (0.05 1/1001) + Glycerin (0.01 1/1001) + Phenoxyethanol (0.2 1/1001) + Tocopherol (0.0025 1/1001)ClothTopicalJiangsu Terra Medical Technology Co Ltd2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
Disinfect WipesAloe vera leaf (0.0025 1/1001) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.4 1/1001) + Cetylpyridinium chloride (0.03 1/1001) + Citric acid (0.01 1/1001) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (0.2 1/1001) + Dimethicone (0.05 1/1001) + Glycerin (0.01 1/1001) + Phenoxyethanol (0.2 1/1001) + Tocopherol (0.0025 1/1001)ClothTopicalJiangsu Terra Medical Technology Co Ltd2020-03-30Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
75 Alcohol Hand SanitizerAloe vera leaf (1 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidExtracorporealFujian Quanzhou Kete New Material Co., Ltd.2020-04-26Not applicableUS flag
Alcortin AAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (10 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/1g)GelTopicalNovum Pharma, Llc2015-03-012021-08-31US flag
Alcortin AAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (10 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrimus Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUS flag
AloquinAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (12.5 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrimus Pharmaceuticals2009-07-06Not applicableUS flag
AloquinAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (12.5 mg/1g)GelTopicalNovum Pharma, Llc2015-03-012018-06-01US flag
ARILAC Soothing Mask Sheet PackAloe vera leaf (6.295 g/100mL) + Chamaecyparis obtusa wood oil (30.0 g/100mL)PatchTopicalMenapay Inc.2021-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiAloe vera leaf (63.52 g/100g)LotionTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiAloe vera leaf (46.27 g/100g)CreamTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Baby Wipe PremiumAloe vera leaf (1 g/1)ClothTopicalSHINWA INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION2021-05-062021-05-11US flag
BenzoinAloe vera leaf (.12 g/0.6mL) + Benzoin (0.6 g/0.6mL) + Liquidambar styraciflua resin (.48 g/0.6mL) + Tolu balsam (.24 g/0.6mL)SwabTopicalJames Alexander Corporation1976-10-252025-02-28US flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Not Available
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
ZY81Z83H0X
CAS number
8001-97-6

References

General References
  1. Kang MC, Kim SY, Kim YT, Kim EA, Lee SH, Ko SC, Wijesinghe WA, Samarakoon KW, Kim YS, Cho JH, Jang HS, Jeon YJ: In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel. Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Jan;99:365-71. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.091. Epub 2013 Aug 31. [Article]
  2. Wang ZW, Zhou JM, Huang ZS, Yang AP, Liu ZC, Xia YF, Zeng YX, Zhu XF: Aloe polysaccharides mediated radioprotective effect through the inhibition of apoptosis. J Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;45(3):447-54. [Article]
  3. Boonyagul S, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P: Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology. 2014 Jul;102(2):310-7. doi: 10.1007/s10266-012-0101-2. Epub 2013 Jan 12. [Article]
  4. Kaithwas G, Singh P, Bhatia D: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;37(2):135-43. doi: 10.3109/01480545.2013.834350. Epub 2014 Feb 13. [Article]
  5. Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG: Aloe vera: a short review. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53(4):163-6. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.44785. [Article]
  6. Tabandeh MR, Oryan A, Mohammadalipour A: Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Apr;65:424-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.055. Epub 2014 Jan 31. [Article]
PubChem Substance
347911475
RxNav
1306128

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionUlceration of the mouth1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus / Periodontitis, Chronic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBleeding / Infection / Postoperative Complications1
2CompletedHealth Services ResearchGeneralized Gingivitis1
2CompletedSupportive CareOral Mucositis1
2Unknown StatusPreventionDental Decay1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontal Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic2
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionBreath odour1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidExtracorporeal
GelTopical5 g/100g
SolutionOral
SolutionOral99.5 g/100mL
GelTopical
PatchTopical
CreamTopical46.27 g/100g
LotionTopical63.52 g/100g
ClothTopical1 g/1
SwabTopical
PatchTopical10.0 g/20g
TabletOral
CapsuleOral250 mg / cap
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
MouthwashDental20 g/100mL
ClothTopical
OilVaginal4.74 g/237mL
CapsuleOral
CreamTopical
LiquidTopical
LiquidTopical100 g/100mL
PowderTopical
StickTopical2.62 g/35g
SoapTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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1. Free radicals
Kind
Group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Chelator
References
  1. Kaithwas G, Singh P, Bhatia D: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;37(2):135-43. doi: 10.3109/01480545.2013.834350. Epub 2014 Feb 13. [Article]

Drug created on September 08, 2017 20:22 / Updated on July 13, 2021 09:51