Aloe vera leaf


Brand Names
Alcortin A, Aloquin
Generic Name
Aloe vera leaf
DrugBank Accession Number

Aloe describes a genus including over 500 species of flowering succulent plants that grow in the Southern peninsula and various islands. Aloe vera, or Aloe barbadensis miller, is the most common species of Aloe that is cultivated for agricultural and medical purposes. It is a perennial succulent xerophyte with elongated leaves that contain a clear gel. While aloe vera has a long history of commercial uses, it is still widely used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products. The use of aloe vera in constipation, inflammatory disorders, cancer, ulcer, and diabetes has also been investigated 4. The active constituents of aloe vera include polysaccharides with protective effects on skin, as they exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties 5. Common active polysaccharides include glucomannans, polymannose, and acemannan, or b-(1–4)-acetylated polymannose 3. Acemannan and other modified polysaccharides are responsible in preventing suppression of contact hypersensitivity or immune suppression induced by external factors such as irradiation 2.

  • Aloe
  • Aloe (aloe barbadensis)
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf extract
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf juice
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf juice powder
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf powder
  • Aloe barbadensis leaf water
  • Aloe folii extractus (aloe vera)
  • Aloe folium (aloe vera)
  • Aloe herba (aloe vera)
  • Aloe leaf extract
  • Aloe vera
  • Aloe vera dry leaf juice
  • Aloe vera extract
  • Aloe vera leaf extract
  • Aloe vera leaf exudate
  • Aloe vera leaf juice
  • Aloe vera leaf mucilage
  • Aloe vera leaf powder
  • Aloe vera mucilage
  • Aloes
  • Aloes (aloe barbadensis)
  • Barbatos aloe leaf
  • Curacao aloe leaf
  • Ghrita kumari leaf
  • Kanyasara
  • Lu hui (aloe vera)
  • Lu hui ye
  • Luhui (aloe barbadensis)
External IDs
  • Fema no. 2047



Indicated for use as a topical agent to soothe sensitive skin and to relieve symptoms of various skin conditions, including contact or atopic dermatitis, eczema, dermatitis and acne urticata, first- and second-degree burns, radiation dermatitis, and sunburn.

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Treatment ofAcne••• •••••
Treatment ofAtopic dermatitis••• •••••
Treatment ofContact dermatitis and other eczema••• •••••
Treatment ofDermatosis••• •••••
Treatment ofEczema••• •••••
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Aloe polysaccharides mediate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, as well as immunoregulatory activities. Various studies indicate that aloe polysaccharides possess effective free radical scavenging activity in vitro, and produce potent antioxidant potential during oxidative stress in vivo 4. According to the findings of studies in vitro and in vivo, aloe polysaccharides exhibit radioprotective activity. Treatment with acemmanan, which is a common aloe polysaccharide, on CH3 mice with radiation-induced skin reactions resulted in reduced signs of those reactions 2. Studies suggest that aloe polysaccharides may evidently attenuate tumor growth in mice 2. Treatment of aloe polysaccharides in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model led to protective effects against AAPH-indued oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of free radical species and improved cell viability 1.

Mechanism of action

It is suggested that aloe polysaccharides mediate skin-protectant effects in damaged skin, induced by internal or other external factors such as radiation, via inhibiting apoptosis of normal cell lines in vitro and thrombocytes in vivo 2. Following irradiation, aloe polysaccharides block the upregulation of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax, and Bad while blocking downregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 2. In vivo, aloe polysaccharides may act as a scavenger for oxygen free radicals including DPPH, alkyl radicals, superoxides, and singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals that may also be generated by superoxides 1,4. Hydrogen peroxide, which is a weak initiate lipid peroxidation, may also be effectively scavenged by aloe polysaccharides 4. In a Fenton reaction system, aloe polysaccharides demonstrated a concentration-dependent scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical that were generated during the reaction 4. Aloe polysaccharides may also compete with oxygen to react with nitric oxide (NO), thereby inhibiting the generation of nitrite and peroxynitrite anions that act as free radicals 4.

Findings from a study investigating the effects of aloe polysaccharides on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress suggest that aloe polysaccharides mediate potent antioxidant actions in vivo 4. Doxorubicin, known to generate reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydroxy radicals, was administered to albino rats. This led to myocardial oxidative stress and cardiac injury accompanied by leakage of LDH and CPK from cardiac myocytes and to serum due to lipid peroxidation of cardiac membranes, reduced levels of antioxidant coenzyme GSH, and increased levels of SOD from a compensatory and combative mechanism of oxidative stress 4. Treatment with aloe polysaccharides resulted in a significant decrease in serum LDH and CPK levels, indicating that aloe polysaccharides are capable in stabilizing cardiac membranes from peroxidative damage. Restored levels of endogenous GSH and SOD in a dose-dependent manner were also observed with the treatment of aloe polysaccharides, suggesting that aloe polysaccharides exhibit potent antioxidant properties 4.

In a study of rats with open cutaneous back wounds, treatment with aloe polysaccharides decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and induced tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) during the early stage of wound repair, resulting in decreased collagen breakdown and increased preservation of collagen content in the injured area 6. A study proposes that acemannan, a common aloe polysaccharide, stimulates BMSC proliferation, ALPase activity, expression of VEGF, BMP-2, OPN, BSP, and mineralization leading to osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during socket healing 3.

AFree radicals

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.


No pharmacokinetic data available.

Route of elimination

No pharmacokinetic data available.


No pharmacokinetic data available.


No pharmacokinetic data available.

Adverse Effects
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The oral LD50 value of aloe polysaccharides in a mouse toxicity study was 6.1 g/kg 4. No cases of overdose reported.

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Above Intimate LiquidsoapLiquid0.01 mg/250gTopicalBaston Industria de Aerossóis Ltda2023-08-15Not applicableUS flag
Aloe Vera GelGel5 g/100gTopicalYuyao Jessie Commodity Co.,Ltd.2014-05-08Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiCream46.27 g/100gTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Ato Stop SiseundeusiLotion63.52 g/100gTopicalGk Cosmetic Co., Ltd.2016-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Baby Wipe PremiumCloth1 g/1TopicalSHINWA INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION2021-05-062021-05-11US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
75 Alcohol Hand SanitizerAloe vera leaf (1 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidExtracorporealFujian Quanzhou Kete New Material Co., Ltd.2020-04-26Not applicableUS flag
Aloe Vera SprayerAloe vera leaf (2 g/100g) + Glycerin (4 g/100g) + Propylene glycol (2 g/100g) + Tocopherol (0.5 g/100g)LiquidTopicalNINGBO JIANGBEI OCEAN STAR TRADING CO.,LTD2015-02-20Not applicableUS flag
Antipruritic Hair CleanerAloe vera leaf (15 g/100mL) + Ginger (10 g/100mL) + Lonicera confusa flower (20 g/100mL) + Wormwood (25 g/100mL)ShampooCutaneousShantou Youjia E-Commerce Co., Ltd.2024-02-012024-12-31US flag
AnubisMedAloe vera leaf (0.15 g/50mL) + Imidurea (0.25 g/50mL) + Water (45.8293 mL/50mL)LiquidTopicalANUBIS COSMETICS SL2022-10-262027-05-10US flag
ARILAC Soothing Mask Sheet PackAloe vera leaf (6.295 g/100mL) + Chamaecyparis obtusa wood oil (30.0 g/100mL)PatchTopicalMenapay Inc.2021-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
75 Alcohol Hand SanitizerAloe vera leaf (1 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidExtracorporealFujian Quanzhou Kete New Material Co., Ltd.2020-04-26Not applicableUS flag
Alcortin AAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (10 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrimus Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Alcortin AAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (10 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/1g)GelTopicalNovum Pharma, Llc2015-03-012021-08-31US flag
AloquinAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (12.5 mg/1g)GelTopicalNovum Pharma, Llc2015-03-012018-06-01US flag
AloquinAloe vera leaf (10 mg/1g) + Diiodohydroxyquinoline (12.5 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrimus Pharmaceuticals2009-07-06Not applicableUS flag


Drug Categories
Not Available
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number


General References
  1. Kang MC, Kim SY, Kim YT, Kim EA, Lee SH, Ko SC, Wijesinghe WA, Samarakoon KW, Kim YS, Cho JH, Jang HS, Jeon YJ: In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel. Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Jan;99:365-71. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.091. Epub 2013 Aug 31. [Article]
  2. Wang ZW, Zhou JM, Huang ZS, Yang AP, Liu ZC, Xia YF, Zeng YX, Zhu XF: Aloe polysaccharides mediated radioprotective effect through the inhibition of apoptosis. J Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;45(3):447-54. [Article]
  3. Boonyagul S, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P: Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology. 2014 Jul;102(2):310-7. doi: 10.1007/s10266-012-0101-2. Epub 2013 Jan 12. [Article]
  4. Kaithwas G, Singh P, Bhatia D: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;37(2):135-43. doi: 10.3109/01480545.2013.834350. Epub 2014 Feb 13. [Article]
  5. Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG: Aloe vera: a short review. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53(4):163-6. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.44785. [Article]
  6. Tabandeh MR, Oryan A, Mohammadalipour A: Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Apr;65:424-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.055. Epub 2014 Jan 31. [Article]
PubChem Substance

Clinical Trials

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PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCountStart DateWhy Stopped100+ additional columns
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Dermatitis / Epigenetic Disorder / Psoriasis1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBCG Vaccine / Epigenetics / Trained Immunity1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Canal Stenosis / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / Drug Overdose / Overdose of Beta-adrenergic Blocking Drug1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchSepsis Newborn1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide


Not Available
Not Available
Dosage Forms
LiquidTopical0.01 mg/250g
GelTopical5 g/100g
SolutionOral99.5 g/100mL
CreamTopical46.27 g/100g
LotionTopical63.52 g/100g
ClothTopical1 g/1
PatchTopical10.0 g/20g
CapsuleOral250 mg / cap
CreamCutaneous20 mg/100mg
CreamCutaneous30 mg/100mg
TinctureRespiratory (inhalation); Topical
LiquidNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
MouthwashDental20 g/100mL
SoapTopical5 g/100g
OilVaginal4.74 g/237mL
LipstickCutaneous4.44 g/14.8g
Solution / dropsInfiltration
LiquidTopical100 g/100mL
Tablet, film coatedOral12.5 mg
StickTopical2.62 g/35g
PatchTopical29 g/1001
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation)
Not Available
Not Available


Experimental Properties
Not Available


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1. Free radicals
Pharmacological action
  1. Kaithwas G, Singh P, Bhatia D: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;37(2):135-43. doi: 10.3109/01480545.2013.834350. Epub 2014 Feb 13. [Article]

Drug created at September 08, 2017 20:22 / Updated at August 06, 2021 21:26