Identification

Name
Orlistat
Accession Number
DB01083
Description

Orlistat is a drug used in the treatment of obesity. Its primary function is preventing the absorption of fats from the human diet, thereby reducing caloric intake. Orlistat works by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in the intestine. Without this enzyme, triglycerides from the diet are prevented from being hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids and are excreted undigested.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 495.7348
Monoisotopic: 495.392373811
Chemical Formula
C29H53NO5
Synonyms
  • (-)-Tetrahydrolipstatin
  • Orlipastat
  • Orlipastatum
  • Orlistat
  • Tetrahydrolipstatin
External IDs
  • RO 18-0647/002
  • RO-18-0647/002
  • RO-180647-002
  • RO-180647002

Pharmacology

Indication

For obesity management including weight loss and weight maintenance when used in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet. Also used to reduce the risk for weight regain after prior weight loss. Use of orlistat is pending revision due to reports of liver-related adverse events.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor for obesity management that acts by inhibiting the absorption of dietary fats. At the recommended therapeutic dose of 120 mg three times a day, orlistat inhibits dietary fat absorption by approximately 30%. It works by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fat in the intestine. Without this enzyme, fat from the diet is excreted undigested and not absorbed by the body. Because some vitamins are fat soluble, the effect of orlistat is to reduce their body absorption. Therefore the drug should only be taken in conjuction with fatty meals, and a multivitamin tablet containing these vitamins (D E K and beta-carotene) should be taken once a day, at least 2 hours before or after taking the drug. In the March 15, 2004 issue of Cancer Research, [1] Steven J. Kridel et al. state that orlistat may also inhibit growth of prostate cancer, and in theory may be useful in treating other cancers, by interfering with the metabolism of fats.

Mechanism of action

Orlistat is a reversible inhibitor of lipases. It exerts its therapeutic activity in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine by forming a covalent bond with the active serine residue site of gastric and pancreatic lipases. The inactivated enzymes are thus unavailable to hydrolyze dietary fat in the form of triglycerides into absorbable free fatty acids and monoglycerides. As undigested triglycerides are not absorbed, the resulting caloric deficit may have a positive effect on weight control.

TargetActionsOrganism
APancreatic triacylglycerol lipase
inhibitor
Humans
AGastric triacylglycerol lipase
inhibitor
Humans
AFatty acid synthase
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Systemic absorption of orlistat is minimal, however systemic absorption of the drug is not needed for activity.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

>99% bound to plasma proteins (lipoproteins and albumin were major binding proteins).

Metabolism

Metabolized primarily within the gastrointestinal wall forming relatively inactive metabolites. Metabolites M1 (4-member lactone ring hydrolyzed) and M3 (M1 with N-formyl leucine moiety cleaved) accounted for approximately 42% of total radioactivity in plasma. M1 and M3 have an open beta-lactone ring and extremely weak lipase inhibitory activity (1000- and 2500-fold less than orlistat, respectively).

Route of elimination

Following a single oral dose of 360 mg 14C-orlistat in both normal weight and obese subjects, fecal excretion of the unabsorbed drug was found to be the major route of elimination. Orlistat and its M1 and M3 metabolites were also subject to biliary excretion.

Half-life

1 to 2 hours.

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The results of a massive overdose of Xenical are unknown, although the drug seems relatively harmless.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be increased when combined with Orlistat.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be increased when combined with Orlistat.
AcenocoumarolOrlistat may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetazolamideOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetazolamide resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be increased when combined with Orlistat.
AlectinibThe metabolism of Alectinib can be increased when combined with Orlistat.
AlfacalcidolOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alfacalcidol resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlitretinoinOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alitretinoin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlpelisibThe metabolism of Alpelisib can be increased when combined with Orlistat.
alpha-Tocopherol acetateOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of alpha-Tocopherol acetate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Take with food. Take with meals or up to 1 hour after a meal. Doses may be skipped for missed meals or fat-free meals.

Products

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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlliCapsule60 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliTablet, chewable27 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliCapsule60 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliCapsule60 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliCapsule60 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliTablet, chewable27 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliTablet, chewable27 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliCapsule60 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliTablet, chewable27 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
AlliTablet, chewable27 mgOralGlaxo Group Limited2007-07-23Not applicableEU flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlliCapsule60 mg/1OralGlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare Holdings (US) LLC2007-02-07Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
A08AB01 — Orlistat
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as leucine and derivatives. These are compounds containing leucine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of leucine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Leucine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acid esters / N-formyl-alpha amino acids / Fatty acid esters / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Beta propiolactones / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Oxetanes / Carboxylic acid esters / Oxacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Alpha-amino acid ester / Beta_propiolactone / Carbonyl group / Carboxamide group / Carboxylic acid ester / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid ester / Fatty acyl / Hydrocarbon derivative
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
95M8R751W8
CAS number
96829-58-2
InChI Key
AHLBNYSZXLDEJQ-FWEHEUNISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H53NO5/c1-5-7-9-11-12-13-14-15-16-18-24(34-29(33)26(30-22-31)20-23(3)4)21-27-25(28(32)35-27)19-17-10-8-6-2/h22-27H,5-21H2,1-4H3,(H,30,31)/t24-,25-,26-,27-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-[(2S,3S)-3-hexyl-4-oxooxetan-2-yl]tridecan-2-yl (2S)-2-formamido-4-methylpentanoate
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCC[[email protected]@H](C[[email protected]@H]1OC(=O)[[email protected]]1CCCCCC)OC(=O)[[email protected]](CC(C)C)NC=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Vilmos Keri, "Preparation of orlistat and orlistat crystalline forms." U.S. Patent US20030149095, issued August 07, 2003.

US20030149095
General References
  1. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L: XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):155-61. [PubMed:14693982]
  2. Mancini MC, Halpern A: Pharmacological treatment of obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Apr;50(2):377-89. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16767304]
  3. Menendez JA, Vellon L, Lupu R: Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional repression of Her2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. Ann Oncol. 2005 Aug;16(8):1253-67. Epub 2005 May 3. [PubMed:15870086]
  4. Garcia SB, Barros LT, Turatti A, Martinello F, Modiano P, Ribeiro-Silva A, Vespucio MV, Uyemura SA: The anti-obesity agent Orlistat is associated to increase in colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen. Cancer Lett. 2006 Aug 28;240(2):221-4. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [PubMed:16377080]
  5. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802]
  6. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255]
  7. Hvizdos KM, Markham A: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 1999 Oct;58(4):743-60. [PubMed:10551441]
  8. Lucas KH, Kaplan-Machlis B: Orlistat--a novel weight loss therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Mar;35(3):314-28. [PubMed:11261530]
  9. Curran MP, Scott LJ: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of patients with obesity. Drugs. 2004;64(24):2845-64. [PubMed:15563254]
  10. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015215
PubChem Compound
3034010
PubChem Substance
46508309
ChemSpider
2298564
BindingDB
24567
RxNav
37925
ChEBI
94686
ChEMBL
CHEMBL175247
ZINC
ZINC000008214635
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000053
PharmGKB
PA164776864
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Orlistat
AHFS Codes
  • 56:92.00 — Miscellaneous GI Drugs
FDA label
Download (82.5 KB)
MSDS
Download (114 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType II Diabetes in Subjects BMI 27 to 321
4CompletedTreatment1. Obesity1
4CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Heart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Hepatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral60 mg
CapsuleOral60 mg/1
TabletOral27 MG
Tablet, chewableOral27 mg
Capsule, coatedOral120 mg
TabletOral120 MG
Capsule, coatedOral60 mg
PowderNot applicable1 kg/1kg
Capsule, liquid filledOral120 mg
CapsuleOral120 mg/1
CapsuleOral120 mg
Capsule, gelatin coated120 mg
Tablet, solubleOral120 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xenical 120 mg capsule4.44USD capsule
Alli 60 mg capsule0.67USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US4598089No1986-07-012009-12-18US flag
CA2383036No2006-01-102020-09-11Canada flag
CA2258095No2000-02-222018-01-24Canada flag
US6004996Yes1999-12-212018-07-06US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleNot Available
logP8.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.19e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.61ALOGPS
logP8.11ChemAxon
logS-6.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count23ChemAxon
Refractivity139.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability61.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9728
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5923
Caco-2 permeable-0.5611
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5411
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6242
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5301
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9097
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.854
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.826
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5867
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8458
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8305
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8869
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7315
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.907
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7333
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8628
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7808
Rat acute toxicity2.3363 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9671
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9395
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PNLIP
Uniprot ID
P16233
Uniprot Name
Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase
Molecular Weight
51156.48 Da
References
  1. Uusitupa M: New aspects in the management of obesity: operation and the impact of lipase inhibitors. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1999 Feb;10(1):3-7. [PubMed:10095983]
  2. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W: New approaches in the pharmacological treatment of obesity. Eur J Nutr. 1999 Feb;38(1):1-13. [PubMed:10338682]
  3. Bray GA: Drug treatment of obesity. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;13(1):131-48. [PubMed:10932681]
  4. Bray GA: A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition. 2000 Oct;16(10):953-60. [PubMed:11054601]
  5. Gomis Barbara R: [Pharmacological treatment of obesity]. Rev Med Univ Navarra. 2004 Apr-Jun;48(2):63-5. [PubMed:15382615]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802]
  8. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255]
  9. Nelson RH, Miles JM: The use of orlistat in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005 Nov;6(14):2483-91. [PubMed:16259579]
  10. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA: Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Mar;20(3):270-9. [PubMed:10730683]
  11. Henness S, Perry CM: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 2006;66(12):1625-56. [PubMed:16956313]
  12. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529]
  13. McNeely W, Benfield P: Orlistat. Drugs. 1998 Aug;56(2):241-9; discussion 250. [PubMed:9711448]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
LIPF
Uniprot ID
P07098
Uniprot Name
Gastric triacylglycerol lipase
Molecular Weight
45237.375 Da
References
  1. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802]
  2. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255]
  3. Bray GA: Lifestyle and pharmacological approaches to weight loss: efficacy and safety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov;93(11 Suppl 1):S81-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1294. [PubMed:18987274]
  4. Nelson RH, Miles JM: The use of orlistat in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005 Nov;6(14):2483-91. [PubMed:16259579]
  5. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA: Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Mar;20(3):270-9. [PubMed:10730683]
  6. Henness S, Perry CM: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 2006;66(12):1625-56. [PubMed:16956313]
  7. Curran MP, Scott LJ: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of patients with obesity. Drugs. 2004;64(24):2845-64. [PubMed:15563254]
  8. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529]
Details
3. Fatty acid synthase
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name
FASN
Uniprot ID
P49327
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid synthase
Molecular Weight
273424.06 Da
References
  1. Kridel SJ, Axelrod F, Rozenkrantz N, Smith JW: Orlistat is a novel inhibitor of fatty acid synthase with antitumor activity. Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15;64(6):2070-5. [PubMed:15026345]
  2. Knowles LM, Axelrod F, Browne CD, Smith JW: A fatty acid synthase blockade induces tumor cell-cycle arrest by down-regulating Skp2. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16;279(29):30540-5. Epub 2004 May 11. [PubMed:15138278]
  3. Menendez JA, Vellon L, Lupu R: Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional repression of Her2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. Ann Oncol. 2005 Aug;16(8):1253-67. Epub 2005 May 3. [PubMed:15870086]
  4. Kremer L, de Chastellier C, Dobson G, Gibson KJ, Bifani P, Balor S, Gorvel JP, Locht C, Minnikin DE, Besra GS: Identification and structural characterization of an unusual mycobacterial monomeromycolyl-diacylglycerol. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Aug;57(4):1113-26. [PubMed:16091048]
  5. Purohit VC, Richardson RD, Smith JW, Romo D: Practical, catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of beta-lactones via a sequential ketene dimerization/hydrogenation process: inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase. J Org Chem. 2006 Jun 9;71(12):4549-58. [PubMed:16749788]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Novotna A, Doricakova A, Vrzal R, Maurel P, Pavek P, Dvorak Z: Investigation of Orlistat effects on PXR activation and CYP3A4 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal LS174T cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010 Oct 9;41(2):276-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2010.06.019. Epub 2010 Jul 3. [PubMed:20599501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory...
Gene Name
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID
P47712
Uniprot Name
Cytosolic phospholipase A2
Molecular Weight
85238.2 Da
References
  1. Filippatos TD, Gazi IF, Liberopoulos EN, Athyros VG, Elisaf MS, Tselepis AD, Kiortsis DN: The effect of orlistat and fenofibrate, alone or in combination, on small dense LDL and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Aug;193(2):428-37. Epub 2006 Sep 5. [PubMed:16911813]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 25, 2020 08:53

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