Polyvinyl alcohol

Identification

Summary

Polyvinyl alcohol is a compound used as an ophthalmic lubricant.

Brand Names
Clear Eyes Natural Tears, Freshkote, Minidrops, Refresh Lubricant
Generic Name
Polyvinyl alcohol
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11060
Background

Polyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer obtained by polymerization of vinyl alcohol. It has varying roles in commercial and industrial applications such as papermaking, textiles, and printing. Polyvinyl alcohol is found in ophthalmic solutions as a lubricant to prevent irritation or to relieve dryness of the eyes 4.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Synonyms
  • Alcohol polivinílico
  • Polyvinyl alcohol
  • PVOH
External IDs
  • E-1203
  • INS-1203

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as a lubricant to prevent further irritation or to relieve dryness of the eye(s) 6.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Temporarily relieves burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye or from exposure to wind or sun. Lubricates the eyes and helps protect against further eye irritation/dryness 7.

Mechanism of action

As a synthetic resin with hydrophilic properties, it increases the persistence of tear film and therefore lubricates and soothes dry/irritated eyes 9.

Absorption

Polyvinyl alcohol is poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract, and readily eliminated from the body 5.

Volume of distribution

This drug does not accumulate in the body when administered orally 1.

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

When injected intravenously, polyvinyl alcohol has a half-life of 90 min 2.

Intraocularly, in eye drop form, the half-life is 7.2 minutes 3.

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

The oral acute toxicity of PVOH (LD50) in rats and mice are 20 g/kg and 14.7 g/kg, respectively 5. Adverse effects include eye pain and changes of vision, and redness or irritation of the eye 9.

Mild stinging or irritation of the eye, crusting of eyelid, eye pain, ocular hyperaemia, eye pruritus, foreign body sensation, eye discharge, and increased lacrimation may also occur 8.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Akwa TearsSolution14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-11-222013-06-11US flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions1998-03-01Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsSolution1.4 %OphthalmicIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated1996-12-102015-10-26Canada flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-03-13Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn Animal Health, Inc.2015-06-152015-06-15US flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicRugby Laboratories Inc.2011-10-072019-02-28US flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-03-232014-12-31US flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops1.4 %OphthalmicRivex Ophthalmics Inc.1997-08-112003-07-28Canada flag
Artificial TearsSolution / drops14 mg/1mLOphthalmicAru Pharma Inc.2020-03-31Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Artifical TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (0.05 g/1mL) + Povidone (0.06 g/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicmedsource pharmaceuticals2016-04-04Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicKc Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2003-11-25Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (0.5 g/100mL) + Povidone (0.6 g/100mL)SolutionOphthalmicNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.2020-01-02Not applicableUS flag
Artificial TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2012-03-012015-12-31US flag
Artificial Tears ExtraPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicPharmascience Inc1997-05-162016-10-31Canada flag
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (500 mg/100mL) + Povidone (600 mg/100mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicWinCo Foods, LLC2015-01-09Not applicableUS flag
Artificial Tears Lubricant EyePolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Artificial Tears PlusPolyvinyl alcohol (1.4 %) + Povidone (0.6 %)SolutionOphthalmicIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated1996-12-102015-10-26Canada flag
CareOne Artificial Tears Eye Drops 15mLPolyvinyl alcohol (0.5 g/100mL) + Povidone (0.6 g/100mL)LiquidOphthalmicRetail Business Services, LLC2019-10-29Not applicableUS flag
Clear Eyes Natural TearsPolyvinyl alcohol (5.0 mg/1mL) + Povidone (6.0 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2013-05-15Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
SICCAPROTECT 10 ML GOZ DAMLASIPolyvinyl alcohol (14 mg/ml) + Dexpanthenol (30 mg/ml)Solution / dropsOphthalmicBİEM İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-142020-12-09Turkey flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
532B59J990
CAS number
9002-89-5

References

General References
  1. DeMerlis CC, Schoneker DR: Review of the oral toxicity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Mar;41(3):319-26. [Article]
  2. Yamaoka T, Tabata Y, Ikada Y: Comparison of body distribution of poly(vinyl alcohol) with other water-soluble polymers after intravenous administration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;47(6):479-86. [Article]
  3. O'Connor, Davies, G.A. Hopkins, R.M. Hopkins (2014). The Actions and Uses of Ophthalmic Drugs. Butterworth-Heinemann.
  4. Polyvinyl alcohol, PubChem [Link]
  5. Polivinyl Alcohol Review [Link]
  6. Daily Med, Artificial Tears [Link]
  7. HYPOTEARS - polyvinyl alcohol and polyehtylene glycol 400 solution/ drops [Link]
  8. MIMS, Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  9. Pediatrics On Call: Polyvinyl Alcohol [Link]
  10. Express Chemist: Allergan Liquifilm Tears (polyvinyl alcohol) ocular lubricant [Link]
  11. European Food Safety Document [File]
PubChem Substance
347911099
RxNav
8570
Wikipedia
Polyvinyl_alcohol
AHFS Codes
  • 52:13.00* — Artificial Tears
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
MSDS
Download (65.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eyes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNuclear Cataract1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic14 mg
SolutionOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic10 mg
SolutionOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic14 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
Solution / dropsIntraocular
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
SolutionOphthalmic; Topical14 mg
SolutionOphthalmic0.014 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3 %
LiquidOphthalmic
SuspensionOphthalmic14 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic14 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic14 mg
LiquidOphthalmic1.4 %
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.4 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.4 g/100mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 % w/v
SuspensionOphthalmic
SolutionIntraocular14 mg/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitysoluble in water (slightly)MSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on June 18, 2021 14:15