Brand Names
Clear Eyes Natural Tears, Colirio Ocusan, Minidrops, Refresh Lubricant, Stye
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Povidone, also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvidone, is a synthetic water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone used as a binder in many pharmaceutical tablets and lubricant in eye drops. It is also used in many technical applications with various roles as an adhesive, additive, and emulsifier. When in complex with iodine, Povidone-iodine displays antiseptic properties where the iodine, a bactericidal component, mainly contributes to this effect, and povidone acts as a carrier 1. Povidone-iodine can be found in over-the-counter topical solutions, ointment, pessaries, liquid soaps and surgical scrubs. The clinical effectiveness of Povidone-iodine on wound healing remains somewhat controversial, as it was demonstrated in a few clinical studies that the application of the compound in wounds was associated with impaired wound healing, reduced wound strength, or infection in open wounds 1.

The FDA withdrew its approval for the use of all intravenous drug products containing povidone.5 Other formulations of povidone continue to be available.

Small Molecule
Approved, Withdrawn
  • 1-ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer
  • 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymer
  • Polividone
  • Povidona
  • Povidone
  • Povidone, unspecified
  • Povidonum
External IDs
  • E-1201
  • Ins no.1201
  • INS-1201



When in complex with iodine, indicated for inducing antisepsis for prevention of infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Used in combination for symptomatic treatment ofDry eyesCombination Product in combination with: Polyvinyl alcohol (DB11060)••• •••
Symptomatic treatment ofDry eyes••• •••
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Povidone itself has no microbicidal activity. Povidone-iodine exhibits rapid, potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties 2. The clinical effectiveness of povidon-iodine on wound healing remains somewhat controversial; in few clinical studies investigating the effects of povidone-iodine on wound healing, topical administration of the complex was associated with no significant infections, but slower healing and mild to moderate discomfort on application 1.

Mechanism of action

Povidone-iodine is a water-soluble complex that mediates a bactericidal or virucidal action following the gradual liberation of free iodine from the complex at the application site to react with the pathogen 1. Please refer to the drug entry for Povidone-iodine for the full mechanism of action of the complex.


This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.


This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.

Route of elimination

This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.


This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.


This pharmacokinetic data does not apply to povidone.

Adverse Effects
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Oral LD50 in mouse, rat, and rabbit are >40 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 1040 mg/kg, respectively MSDS. No cases of overdose in humans have been reported.

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.


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International/Other Brands
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
iVizia Dry EyeSolution / drops25 mg/5mLOphthalmicSimilasan Corporation2021-11-29Not applicableUS flag
iVizia Dry EyeSolution / drops50 mg/10mLOphthalmicLaboratoires Thea2021-11-29Not applicableUS flag
iVizia Dry EyeSolution / drops50 mg/10mLOphthalmicSimilasan AG2021-11-29Not applicableUS flag
iVizia Lubricant Eye for Severe Night Dry EyesSolution, gel forming / drops2.5 mg/0.5gOphthalmicLaboratoires Thea2021-11-05Not applicableUS flag
iVizia Lubricant Eye for Severe Night Dry EyesSolution, gel forming / drops2.5 mg/0.5gOphthalmicSimilasan Corporation2021-10-14Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Advance Relief Eye DropsPovidone (1000 mg/100mL) + Dextran 70 (100 mg/100mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (1000 mg/100mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (50 mg/100mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicWinCo Foods, LLC2015-01-09Not applicableUS flag
Advanced reliefPovidone (10 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicAmerican Sales Company2011-09-07Not applicableUS flag
Advanced reliefPovidone (10 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicSamchundang Pharm. Co., Ltd.2010-08-29Not applicableUS flag
Advanced ReliefPovidone (10 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicKareway Product, Inc.2018-05-30Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Relief Eye DropsPovidone (1 % w/v) + Dextran 70 (0.1 % w/v) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (1 % w/v) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 % w/v)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2010-08-30Not applicableCanada flag


Drug Categories
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number


General References
  1. Kramer SA: Effect of povidone-iodine on wound healing: a review. J Vasc Nurs. 1999 Mar;17(1):17-23. [Article]
  2. Bigliardi PL, Alsagoff SAL, El-Kafrawi HY, Pyon JK, Wa CTC, Villa MA: Povidone iodine in wound healing: A review of current concepts and practices. Int J Surg. 2017 Aug;44:260-268. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.06.073. Epub 2017 Jun 23. [Article]
  3. DailyMed: Moisture Eyes Lubricant Eye Drops (povidone 2%) [Link]
  4. DailyMed: Murine Tears (polyvinyl alcohol/povidone) eye drops [Link]
  5. Code of Federal Regulations 216.24: Drug products withdrawn or removed from the market for reasons of safety or effectiveness. [Link]
KEGG Compound
PubChem Substance
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Clinical Trial & Rare Diseases Add-on Data Package
Explore 4,000+ rare diseases, orphan drugs & condition pairs, clinical trial why stopped data, & more. Preview package
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCountStart DateWhy Stopped100+ additional columns
4CompletedPreventionPostpartum Endometritis1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Complications1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES) / Dry Eyes1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eyes1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers (HV)1somestatusstop reasonjust information to hide


Not Available
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Solution / dropsIntraocular
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic50 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic25 mg/5mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic50 mg/10mL
Solution, gel forming / dropsOphthalmic2.5 mg/0.5g
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic50 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic50 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/0.4ml
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic10 ml
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/ml
SolutionOphthalmic12 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2 % w/v
SolutionOphthalmic20 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2 g/100mL
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic5 mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic2 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic12 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 %
Kit; solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionTopical10 g
Not Available
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)100MSDS
water solubilitySolubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Not Available
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
Not Available

Drug created at December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated at December 05, 2023 12:31